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Studies of this type have clearly illustrated that vulnerability to schizophrenia can be inherited. Research on twins examines differences in concordance rates between identical monozygotic or MZ and fraternal dizygotic or DZ twins. Thus, environmental influences account for any behavioral differences between MZ twins.

In contrast, DZ twins are no more genetically similar than regular siblings; DZ twins do, however, share more similar environmental factors than do nontwin siblings. To date, the results of twin studies have consistently shown that MZ twins are significantly more likely to be concordant for schizophrenia than are DZ twins. Among the most important findings from this research project are those from the MRI scans conducted on the twins.

The ill twins in the pairs showed significantly more brain abnormalities than the healthy twins. Most notable were reductions in the volume of certain brain regions, especially the hippocampus, and increases in the size of the ventricles. These results clearly indicate the importance of environmental factors in the etiology of schizophrenia.

Schizophrenia Research Paper

As is the case with many other disorders that involve brain dysfunction, there is evidence that schizophrenia is associated with exposure to prenatal and delivery complications.

Obstetrical complications OCs are defined as physical deviations from the normal course of events during pregnancy, labor, or the neonatal period. Among the prenatal factors that have been found to be associated with increased risk for schizophrenia are prenatal maternal nutritional deficiency, viral infection, bleeding, and toxemia.

Complications of delivery that can result in hypoxia have also been linked with heightened risk for the disorder. Hypoxia, a deficiency in the amount of oxygen available to the fetus, can affect the development of various parts of the brain.

Some researchers argue that hypoxia results in hippocampal damage, thus contributing to vulnerability for academic writing service uk. Low birth weight, a neonatal complication, is another potential early factor contributing to schizophrenia.

paper on schizophrenia

There is evidence that low birth weight is related to increased ventricular size, which is a common characteristic of schizophrenia patients.

The findings on prenatal complications support the notion that fetal brain development may be disrupted in individuals who later manifest schizophrenia.

A central question raised by these findings concerns the nature of the etiologic role of OCs. Some hypothesize that OCs produce the neural predisposition to schizophrenia, whereas others posit that OCs exacerbate or interact with an existing genetic predisposition.

Findings from prospective, high-risk research projects lend support to the hypothesis that OCs interact with genetic vulnerabilities in the etiology of schizophrenia. High-risk studies involve the repeated assessment of children of schizophrenia patients, based on the expectation research papers on hip hop a larger percentage of these children will eventually develop the illness than individuals in the general population.

The high-risk method offers some advantages when compared with retrospective studies of the precursors of schizophrenia. One advantage is that it allows for the direct assessment of subjects in the premorbid period, as well as the selection and study of variables that are thought to have prognostic relevance. Furthermore, because a significant portion of the data collection takes place during the premorbid period, this reduces confounds that often occur in the study of diagnosed patients e.

Studies using the high-risk method have shown an interactive effect of genetic risk and exposure to OCs in predicting adult psychiatric outcome. In other words, the correlation between OCs and adult psychiatric symptoms was greater for offspring of schizophrenia parents than for children of healthy parents.

The same pattern was apparent for the relation between OCs and adult brain morphology, suggesting that pre- and perinatal factors contribute to brain abnormalities. As noted earlier, prenatal exposure to maternal viral infection has also been linked with schizophrenia. Specifically, the rate of schizophrenia is increased for cohorts who were in the second trimester during flu epidemics. Another source of evidence for the viral hypothesis is the finding that the births of schizophrenia patients do not seem to be randomly distributed throughout the course of the year.

Instead, the births of schizophrenia patients occur more frequently in winter months. Some researchers have suggested that postnatal viral infection may also be relevant to schizophrenia, and that the illness may be caused by a long-acting virus.

Various findings are cited in support of this hypothesis. Some researchers have identified a viral infection in fatal catatonia, a disorder characterized by schizophrenia-like symptoms, suggesting that a similar viral infection may be found for schizophrenia.

Other researchers have essay writing service college admission office signs of viral activity in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with schizophrenia. The diathesis-stress model has dominated theories about great college application essays etiology of schizophrenia for several decades.

This model assumes that certain individuals inherit or acquire a vulnerability to schizophrenia the diathesisand that the behavioral expression of this vulnerability is determined or triggered by environmental stressors. Thus the diathesis, combined with exposure to environmental stressors, can produce schizophrenia. Exposure to stress within the context of the family has been the focus of researchers in the field.

Families in which there is a schizophrenia patient show more conflict and abnormalities in communication than do other families. However, it has also been shown that there is greater conflict and more abnormalities of communication in families in which any member has a severe debilitating illness.

Thus, family communication styles are unlikely to play a unique causal role in schizophrenia. There is good evidence, however, that exposure to high levels of criticism from family members can increase the likelihood of relapse in schizophrenia patients. The number of critical comments, expressions of hostility, and emotional overinvolvement comprise a construct referred to as expressed emotion EE.

Recovering schizophrenia patients in families high in EE are much more likely to have a relapse compared with patients in families low in EE. There is also evidence from studies of the adopted offspring of schizophrenia patients suggesting that familial stress can hasten the onset of organizing a research paper. Beforeknowledge of the nature and causes of mental disorders was limited. Individuals with psychiatric symptoms, particularly psychotic symptoms, were typically viewed by others with disdain or amusement.

However, social trends and advances in medical knowledge converged to produce greater sympathy for those with mental illness. Pay you to do my homework led, especially during the early part of the century, to the construction of public and private hospitals devoted to the care of the mentally ill. Today, most schizophrenia patients experience at least one period of inpatient treatment. This is typically precipitated by the first psychotic episode.

During this initial hospitalization, an extensive assessment is usually conducted to determine the most appropriate diagnosis.

Treatment is then initiated to reduce symptoms and stabilize patients so that they can return to the community as soon as possible. In the past, periods of hospitalization were longer in duration than they are today. This is due, in part, to the availability today of better medical treatments. Another factor that has contributed to shorter hospital stays is the deinstitutionalization movement.

But community support services and transitional living arrangements were not readily available to many patients. As a result, former psychiatric inpatients now constitute a substantial proportion of the homeless found in U.

Introduced in the s, antipsychotic medication has since become the most effective and widely used treatment for schizophrenia. However, they were not as effective in reducing the negative symptoms. Furthermore, some patients showed no response to antipsychotic drugs.

Chlorpromazine Thorazine was among the first antipsychotic commonly used to treat schizophrenia. Since the s, many other antipsychotic drugs have been introduced. Like chlorpromazine, these drugs reduce hallucinations, delusions, and thought disorder, and engender more calm, manageable, and socially appropriate behavior. As mentioned, all currently used antipsychotic drugs block dopamine neurotransmission. Thus it has been assumed that their efficacy is due to their capacity to reduce the overactivation of dopamine pathways in the brain.

Unfortunately, the benefits of standard or typical antipsychotic drugs are often mitigated by side effects. Minor side effects include sensitivity to light, dryness of mouth, and drowsiness. The more severe effects are psychomotor dysfunction, skin discoloration, visual impairment, and tardive dyskinesia an involuntary movement disorder that can appear after prolonged use of antipsychotics.

It is especially unfortunate that tardive dyskinesia is sometimes irreversible when patients are withdrawn from neuroleptics. Many of these physical signs are known to be caused by chronic blockade of dopamine pathways.

Although additional medications can counter some of the negative effects of the typical antipsychotics, schizophrenia patients often resist taking them because of an aversion to the side effects. It was hoped that these drugs would be effective in treating patients who had not responded to standard antipsychotics. Also, researchers hoped to identify medications that had fewer side effects.

One example is Clozapine, released inwhich seems to reduce negative symptoms more effectively than typical antipsychotic drugs. Clozapine not only offers hope for patients who are nonresponsive to other medications, but it also has fewer side effects than typical antipsychotics. However, clozapine can produce one rare, but potentially fatal, side effect, agranulocytosis, a blood disorder.

Consequently, patients who are on this medication must be monitored on a regular basis. It is fortunate that several other new antipsychotic medications have recently become available, and some of these appear to have no serious side effects. It appears that it is conclusion of dissertation to begin pharmacological treatment of schizophrenia as soon as possible after the symptoms are recognized.

The longer patients go without treatment of illness episodes, the worse the long-term prognosis. Medication also has the benefit of lowering the rate of mortality, particularly suicide, among schizophrenia patients. Patients who are treated with antipsychotic medication generally require maintenance of the medication to obtain continued relief from symptoms. Medication withdrawal often results in relapse. At the same time, the associated long- and short-term dissertation advisor wiki effects of antipsychotics, especially the typical antipsychotics, are of continuing concern to patients, their families, and physicians.

It is possible that future research on the neural mechanisms involved in schizophrenia will lead to the development of novel treatments that eliminate the need for maintenance medication.

Many schizophrenia patients also suffer from depression and, as noted, are at elevated risk for suicide. The reason or reasons for the high rate of co-occurance of depression with schizophrenia is not known.

Given the debilitating and potentially chronic nature of schizophrenia, however, it is likely that some patients experience depressive symptoms in response to their condition. For others, depressive symptoms may be medication side effects or a manifestation of a biologically based vulnerability to depression. Clinicians have used various forms of psychological therapy in an effort to treat schizophrenia patients. Early attempts to provide therapy for schizophrenia patients relied on insight-oriented or psychodynamic techniques.

The chief goal was to foster introspection and self-understanding in patients. Research findings provided no support for the efficacy of these therapies in the treatment of schizophrenia. It has been shown, however, that supportive therapy can be a useful adjunct to medication in the treatment of patients.

Similarly, psychoeducational approaches that emphasize providing information about symptom management have proven effective in reducing relapse. The chemicals that these branches release to send messages from the end of one nerve branch to the cell body of another are called neurotransmitters. In someone that has schizophrenia, something goes wrong with this communication system. The main cause of schizophrenia is heredity.

Family members of someone with the illness have a 10 percent chance of getting the illness. In the case where both parents have the illness their children have a 40 percent chance of developing the illness also.

According to Danish and U. The cognitive-behavioural model proposes that schizophrenia develops from the presence of distorted information processing, as well as from maladaptive learning, which lead to the presence of the psychotic symptoms.

This essay examines the aetiology of schizophrenia based on the cognitive-behavioural model: Schizophrenia, Psychosis, Psychology, Cognition]. It has been found that patients with schizophrenia experience poorer health and life expectancies than the general population.

There are a number of reasons for this: Strong Essays words 3 pages Preview. Individuals with schizophrenia may see things that are not there, hear voices inside their heads, and live in terrifying world of twisted logic.

They may often say odd things, show inappropriate emotions and may move their bodies in weird ways. Normally they are socially withdrawn and isolated. How to detect if someone you know is showing early signs of Schizophrenia. Schizophrenia onset normally occurs between the ages of 15 and 25 although it could affect children younger than fourteen, with a subtype known as childhood onset schizophrenia Schizophrenia is divided into three different phases. Have homework first is the acute phase where the patient may have lost touch with reality.

It may be severe enough that it requires treatment. After treatment is provided the patient may go into the second phase which is called the stabilization phase. At this point in their illness their episodes have been managed, but they are at risk for relapse. Now entering the third phase, the maintenance phase, patients can be kept on medications to allow them to function as normal as possible Schizophrenia, Antipsychotic, Mental disorder].

Another factor that biologists have come up with for the cause of schizophrenia is abnormal brain structure. Using brain scans they have seen that people with schizophrenia have enlarged ventricles in the brain Comer Viral infections could be the cause of these structural brain abnormalities. Other causes could be poor nutrition, fetal development, immune complications, immune reactions and toxins Comer Psychodynamic Freud explained that schizophrenia developed from a two part process Schizophrenia, Dopamine, Brain, Psychology].

There is no cure for schizophrenia, but it can be managed with proper treatment. People with schizophrenia may hear voices or they might feel that someone wants to hurt them, they might also have hallucinations. Schizophrenia affects the brain which alters cognition and contributes to other major problems for instance, the person might have paranoia, delusions, and poor emotional responsiveness Schizophrenia, Psychosis, Medicine, Mind].

With hallucinations they could suffer with six different versions of it including visual, auditory, tactile, olfactory, gustatory, and kinesthetic. Out of all of these auditory is the one that is most often exhibited.

Someone with auditory hallucinations tends to hear voice telling them things. The cause of paranoid schizophrenia is unknown. Two of the main factors are believed to contribute to it are genetics and environmental factors. There are many other risk factors that are believed to contribute to it also Many times, those with schizophrenia were first diagnosed with depression. The diagnosis can be attributed to what is referred to as the negative symptoms of schizophrenia.

There are mainly three categories for the different symptoms associated with this illness: Due to the definition, many individuals would assume schizophrenic patients had multiple personalities. When in-fact, all individuals with this mental disorder have become distant from reality in some form or fashion, meaning they are not able to tell the difference from what is real and what is not Well there are people out there that are actually going crazy.

Schizophrenia is a neurobiological disease in the brain. It is caused by changes in brain chemistry. There is separation between the thought process and the emotions.

Schizophrenia is very severe write my essay org miserable if you are diagnosed with it.

Believe it or not, schizophrenia is a lot more complex than you might think. The disease goes way back with history, has very harsh symptoms, and can have very long treatment plans to go along with it Accordingly, brain development alterations before birth or during puberty, as well as variations of the m i t phd dissertation reactions involving dopamine and glutamate, increases the likelihood of acquiring this mental disorder Schizophrenia, Mental disorder, Disability].

In your own words, fully describe and discuss the vicious cycle of schizophrenia 6 pts. The vicious cycle of schizophrenia has a lot of parallels to normal people except for the actual biological diathesis and selective attention dysfunction. If a person is already pre disposed to the schizophrenia genes, then it can happen at any point in time, they could spiral down into a psychosis. This disease can cause you to withdraw from the people and activities in the world around you.

Which causes a person to retreat into a world of delusions and fantasies. Since no one knows the cause of this disease its hard to know what type of treatment is right. As of now there are two types of known treatments medication, and Psychotherapy. Only one of these two treatments is more endorsed by Doctors who treat this illness. Medication is the more favored of the two but Psychotherapy has a higher commitment rate Schizophrenia, mental illness, psychology, ].

Free Essays words 1. It affects both men and women equally, though it can be seen in men in earlier years.

Early warning signs can be seen in one with schizophrenia. These include being emotionless, saying unusual things and change in their personal hygiene. Their speech is different than one without the mental disorder along with the way one may think and behave For women, the age of onset is usually later in life, on average between the ages of 20 to 30 custom publishing business plan of age.

Schizophrenia People with schizophrenia appear to have a neurochemical imbalance. Researchers study neurotransmitters, the substances that allow communication between nerve cells. College application essay help online funny antipsychotic medications, now target three different neurotransmitter systems dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine. Schizophrenia, Psychosis, Dopamine, Frontal lobe].

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paper on schizophrenia

Register now and get access to your personal control panel. Schizophrenia is a well known emotional and mental disorder that causes hallucinations, paranoid and delusional behaviour.

Free Schizophrenia Essays and Papers

In contrary to many other diseases, schizophrenia is mostly affected and caused by external environment. People that are suffering from this disorder usually cannot differentiate their imaginative world from the real one. Schizophrenia is very often a result of stress and paper on schizophrenia gradually. It is therefore, very important to start early treatment of the disease.

paper on schizophrenia