According to studies, after a successful period of going through this therapy, people with the disorder are transformed and can live their life without being controlled by fear and anxiety. Here, cognitive-behavioral therapy involves engaging on a hands-on and practical approach to problem-solving. Panic disorder is a common phd thesis hec pakistan health problem all over the world involving recurrent and unexpected panic attacks.
Here, panic attacks refer to the sudden and intense moments of fear and may include palpitations, sweating, shaking, shortness of breath, numbness or a feeling that something terrible will happen Roy-Byrne, Most of the times, panic attacks start in adulthood after the age of twenty, but children can also experience moments of panic attack characterized by fearful spells. Panic Disorder profoundly disrupts the ordinary life of the victim. It may lead to people missing work, numerous doctor appointments, and stay away from situations that might trigger a panic attack.
Sometimes, the case is made worse when an individual also has agoraphobia. Here, agoraphobia refers to a situation where an individual avoids a place because they feel that it does not offer an immediate escape route such as a shopping mall or other enclosed places such as movie theatres. In such situations, the victim goes through troubling moments and their world intensely reduced since they are always on the lookout of the next panic attack.
Sometimes such people develop routes and territories that they use becoming difficult for them to travel beyond their safety zones without suffering from a severe panic attack.
Panic disorder is a treatable condition. According to research, people living with panic disorder can be treated using medications, psychotherapy, or a combination of these two approaches Roy-Byrne, The medicines of panic disorder fall under two categories, dissertation theatre Prozac, Zoloft, Paxil, and Celexa and anti-anxiety drugs Xanax, Klonopin, Ativan, and Valium Roy-Byrne, These medications reduce the severity of the attacks and a general feeling of anxiety.
In psychotherapy, a specialist helps a client work through unresolved issues and feelings or to develop healthy ways of thinking and behaving. Psychotherapy comprises of approaches such as cognitive-behavioral therapy, desensitization, and panic-focused psychodynamic psychotherapy.
In social phobia, the victim had difficulties speaking in public, initiating conversations, meeting new people, eating in public areas, and in extreme cases going to public restrooms. On specific phobia, victims are afraid of specific objects or situations that can limit their lives. However, no matter the negative impact of the conditions on the life of individuals, these type of phobias are treatable through different approaches such as medication, psychotherapy or a combination of both.
The treatment options are based on the idea that if a client can come into terms with their emotional turmoil, then they can overcome their issues and panic disorder. American Psychiatric Association. American Psychiatric Pub. Choy, Y. Our approach here derives from the contemporarily influential idea that emotions are functional states.
That is, emotions are states of the organism that can best be understood according to their functions.
According to this idea, understanding the function of a state is a good start toward understanding whether that state is emotional in nature. According to this conceptualization, anxiety is any state that serves a particular function or purpose. What function does anxiety serve? It has become conventional in psychology to construe anxiety as a state that serves to escape or avoid danger. Mobilization of an organism to take actions to avoid harm can be a function that enhances survivability.
This is our working hypothesis about the function of anxiety. Another idea that has garnered empirical support is that the function of anxiety is to warn others about danger, particularly via facial expressions. Both of these views constitute theories of the nature of anxiety, and are subject to continuing investigation and development or decline, depending on the accumulation of relevant evidence.
Some researchers have argued that a limited number of basic emotions exist that cannot be analyzed into more fundamental emotions. These include anger, fear, sadness, disgust, and joy. Other emotions are said to be combinations of these basic emotions. For example, it has been suggested that anxiety can be conceptualized as a combination of fear, guilt, and anger.
Another approach is to analyze emotions according to their position along certain basic dimensions. These dimensions of positive and negative affectivity are hypothesized to writing a successful college application essay by george ehrenhaft a variety of emotions. Particular emotions are usually depicted as points mapped onto the two-dimensional space. In this model, anxiety is characterized by excess negative affect.
Because our approach is to view anxiety as a state that serves to escape or avoid danger, an essential element of an anxiety state must be a perception of danger by the organism. Note that there need not be any actual danger, but only the perception of danger. Unless there is some perception of danger by the organism, it is hard to make sense of anxiety as a state whose function is to mobilize the organism to escape or avoid danger.
Cognitive psychology experiments have well established that there are both conscious and unconscious perceptual processes, and that perception of danger can be unconscious. According to the two-stage theory, a neutral event comes to trigger anxiety if it has been experienced along with an event that itself causes anxiety. Furthermore, it is supposed that anxiety can outline on a persuasive speech conditioned not only to physical events, such as snakes and spiders, but also to mental events, such as thoughts and images.
This is the first stage: Once fear of a previously neutral situation is acquired in this way, methods of escape or avoidance are attempted, and successful methods are learned and maintained. This learning to escape and avoid is the second stage of the hypothesized two-stage process: For example, it fails to account for the disproportionately high frequency of certain fears e.
It also does not explain the particular ease with which some fears, like taste aversions, are learned and maintained. A useful addition to the two-stage theory is the theory of biologically prepared learning, that hypothesizes that certain conditioned learning is especially easy because of evolutionary developments in the nervous system that have had survival advantages. Although preparedness theory is a plausible elaboration of two-factor theory, its experimental exploration has yielded equivocal results.
Despite the limitations of the basic two-stage theory, it maps well onto certain observations about the maintenance of phobic avoidance and escape. Specifically, it is generally consistent with the common observation that confrontation with phobic situations has been found to provoke reports of distress and elevated cardiac and electrodermal activity, and withdrawal from the situations leads to temporary relief.
Another influential theory of anxiety emphasizes the anxiogenic role of uncontrollability and unpredictability.
Accordingly, unpleasant events feel much worse and have more lasting effects if they are unpredictable and uncontrollable. These theories postulate that what people think influences how they feel.
A limitation of this sort of cognitive theory is that it does not specify what expectations and attitudes distinguish different emotions, such as fear versus anger or sadness. Another type of cognitive theory supposes that certain styles of thinking, for example, overestimating of threat, are involved in pathological anxiety, and that the perception of threat is an important determinant of anxiety.
For example, Watts and his colleagues have argued that the way people pay attention to, remember, and interpret threat-relevant information is a crucial determinant of anxiety.
Furthermore, different emotions may be associated with different types of information processing bias, for example, anxiety with attentional bias, and sadness with memory bias. Biological theories of anxiety emphasize the role of the nervous system in anxiety. Anxiety is routinely construed as a stress reaction, and it is generally understood that environmental stressors affect physical well-being. Accordingly, there are three phases in the reaction to stress.
During the first phase, the alarm reaction, the activity in the autonomic nervous system increases. In the second stage, resistance, some physiological adaptation occurs, but if the stressor persists, other physiological reactions ensue, such as ulcers and atrophy of the thymus. Finally, in the third phase, exhaustion, irreversible damage or death may result if the source of stress is not removed.
Other researchers have emphasized the importance of interpretation of events in the environment. For example, Lazarus suggests that interpretation of threat is as important as the triggering event in causing stress. The above theories of stress often refer to neuroanatomical structure that may be involved in the stress reaction. Gray has argued that the effects of certain anti-anxiety substances such as alcohol, and of lesions of certain brain areas e.
Furthermore, Gray suggested that individual differences in anxiety stem from differences in the activation of the behavioral inhibition system and that these differences are determined genetically. As noted earlier, anxiety is believed to have survival value because it prepares the academic argument essay to avoid harm. While the avoidance of threat is essential for survival, chronic anxiety can involve hypervigilance and exaggerated perception of the number and severity of dangerous environmental stimuli.
Genetic and family studies have found some support for this notion. For example, elevated levels of panic have been found in relatives of individuals with panic disorder. Another way of understanding genetic influence is through comparisons of identical monozygotic twins, who have identical genetic makeup, and dizygotic twins, who have similar upbringing but different genetic makeup. The method is to compare their concordance for anxiety, that is, to compare the number of each type of twin pair who both have anxiety.
Such concordance is higher in monozygotic twins. Together, the various genetic studies point to a component of heritability for anxiety. There are several types of anxiety disorders, including:. People with general anxiety disorders may be unable to remain still for long periods of time and may engage in fidgeting behaviors such as crossing and uncrossing their legs or arms or playing nervously with their hair or clothing.
An unexpected sound, such as a honking horn or the ringing of a telephone causes unexplained anxiety, rapid heartbeat, or quickened breathing. According to the Anxiety and Depression Society0ther anxiety disorders are characterized by different symptoms. For example, individuals with panic disorder experience a sudden onset of intense terror, and may suffer from an impending feeling of doom.
Individuals who suffer from this disorder may experience severe chest pains, dizziness, shortness of breath, trembling and sweating. Some experts contend that biological factors may play a role in panic disorders. Individuals with a phobic disorder have an unexplainable, irrational, overwhelming, and persistent fear of a particular object or situation. Individuals with phobia disorders will go to almost any lengths compare and contrast writing essay avoid the thing that scares them.
Individuals with Obsessive-Compulsive disorders have thoughts that will not go away or feel they must perform behaviors over and over again.
People with obsessive personalities may refuse to leave their homes because of persistent thoughts that they will kill someone and compulsive personalities may wash their hands a hundred times a day in order to get rid of germs.
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Symptoms have significant overlap anxiety research paper depression. Lifetime prevalence F: M prevalence MDD comorbidity Panic disorder 1. Social phobia has younger average age of onset — mid-teens.
Social phobia is a primary specific phobia, must be distinguished from secondary social anxiety which may be a consequence of panic disorder.
Beta-blockers is a good choice for performance anxiety.