The contribution of both the characteristics and functionality of a board is likely to be influenced by a number of environmental and firm specific variables and they play an important role in BOD effectiveness Murphy and McIntyre,p. There are three important elements in corporate board structure namely the CEOs, who are the inside directors and are in most cases top managers of the firm, and outside directors, and all have the know how of what a good and a bad project is Kyereboah-Coleman and Biekpe,p.
Generally it can be said that directors of the company may be classified in two types: And the non executive boards are boards that have some contractual relationship with the firm and they provide independent counsel to the firm. They may also hold top level managerial position in other companies Kostyuk, Braendle, and Apreda,p.
The board of directors of a company has the responsibility of acting in the interest of that company in which they are assigned. In General, the responsibility of the board is to offer vision and direction for any corporate entity, to hire, evaluate, and perhaps even to fire top management, to vote on major operating proposals and on major financial decisions, to offer expert advise to management and to make sure whether the shareholders received accurate reports of both firms activity and financial conditions IBID.
Namely board size, board independence, board member gender and board competency. And is considered as tip to the head of the governance structure of any corporate entity Kyereboah-Coleman and Biekpe,p. Much evidence supporting both points of view-small and large sided board was collected during review of our literature.
It is ambiguous to define what small or large board is. According to Carter and Lorschp. These averages buy literary analysis papers huge variations among companies and across countries, since one size does not fit all. Kim and Nofsingerp. Large board creates less value than small boards.
When boards become too big, director free riding increase within the board and the board becomes more symbolic and less a part of the management process. That means for a board with few directors, each board member may feel to add more effort, as they each become conscious that there are only a few others monitoring the firm. On the other hand each member of larger boards may simply assume that the many other members are monitoring.
Additionally with regard to large boards, it is difficult to reach common understanding and thus is hard to get anything meaningfully done.
Therefore, smaller board can be seen as more flexible and more active. Evidence from Belkhirp. The study was investigated to analyze the relationship between board size and performance in a sample of companies in US. Their finding was in favor of a positive relationship between board size and performance. The higher the number of directors sitting on the board the more performance is.
From an agency perspective, it can be argued that a larger board is more likely to be watchful for agency problems because a greater number of qualified people will add their expertise in reviewing management actions Kiel and Nicholson,p.
Mallin,p. But, boards can be larger than this though it would not be the general case. In addition, Pfefferp. This occurs due to the following reasons; first, large organizations are typically more diversified, and consequently have a need to deal with relatively more sectors of the environment. Second, large organizations have a greater impact persuasive introduction society and the economy because of their size, and therefore there is again a greater need to have more members who can relate and legitimate the organization to its external environment.
Board Independence There is a general consensus that when a board has a higher fraction of non-insider referred as outside or independent director Kim and Nofsinger,p. Mallinp. Where as inside director is individual on the board of directors who is an employee of the company Siegel and Shim,p.
Independence is not only a function of the proportion of inside to outside directors, rather it includes whether the board has dual leadership role and the degree of director share ownership. Like boards with heavy share ownership, boards with dual leadership are considered less independent Murphy and McIntyre,p. Starting the 90s the concept of board independency became popular and globally many countries started to follow the guide line that stipulates the minimum level for the representation of outside director on boards of publicly traded companies.
As a result, in most countries, these minimum standards represented a dramatic increase in outside director representation. The movement towards more outside directors is believed that, dissertation deutsch with more outside directors will lead to better board decisions and better corporate performance.
This belief rests in large on faith rather than evidence Dahya and McConnellp. They should not be immediate family members of the executive directors of the company. In terms of owning shares, they may win shares but not such a quantity that would enable them to have dissertation school psychology assertiveness children over the company or to exercise significant influence.
According to Bhagat and Blackp. Some of these differences appear to increase firm value while others may decrease firm value.
There is no convincing evidence that shows the presence of majority of independent directors correlates with greater firm profitability or faster growth in large public companies.
Particularly, no empirical evidence for current proposals supports for firms to have majority independent boards with only one or two inside directors. In contrast, some evidence also shows that firms with majorityindependent boards are less profitable than other firms. Therefore, it can be recommended for firms to have a moderate number of inside directors. Board Member Gender In many countries, the question concerning getting more women on boards and in top executive jobs become a highly debated issue.
The results to Danish firms also showed to some extent supporting the view that a more gender diversity in top management positions would improve the financial performance Smith, Smith and Verner,p. It is argued that women directors on corporate boards offer many contributions. There are reasons which are supported by a demographic case in favor of women corporate directors.
First current male directors are aging and many are soon to be retiring. Second, as board membership requirements and greater understanding of the working of any particular firm increase, male boar members will hold fewer directorship. In addition, fewer qualified males will be available when demands for knowledge and skill are raised. Apparently there was not a 16 Chapter Three — Theoretical Framework critical requirement for some board members in the past which opened up more opportunities for women Burke,p.
Firms which are engaged in customer oriented business, have more women directors who are being seen as employers of choice. Having more women on board is seeing as sign of good governance and an indicator of good management, more importantly the reputation of an organization may be heightened Vinnicombe, Singh, Burke, Bilimoria, and Huse,p. Firms with a higher ratio of women directors may have different impacts on the performance of particular board operational and strategic control task.
And this decision which is concerning with the firm financial and accounting situation is requiring strong quantitative background knowledge and skills. In addition operational control tasks are more routine and ex post, where as strategic control tasks are ex ante, more complex and creative, and it requires a broader range of perspectives. Since, women are particularly sensitive to exercise influence on decisions related to certain organizational practices: Therefore it is expected that boards with a higher ratio of women directors may be more effective in performing strategic control tasks Nielsen and Huse, p.
Board Competency Reviewing a number of the literatures shows definitions that, when synthesized and simplified, describe competency as a complex set of behaviors built on the components of knowledge, skills, and attitudes and the ability to apply them effectively Carraccio, Englander, Wolfsthal, Martin, and Ferentz,p. According to Ollendick and Prinzp. People of certain age are presumptively competent and their competence may be challenged for cause.
It is believed that knowledge, skills and experience gained through age. A profile of the types of skills and experience needed on the board is created as a first step for nominating a committee. This list depends on the business in which the company engages and the strategy it expects to employ. Furthermore, it includes necessary functional expertise such as accounting, finance, marketing, operations management, industry expertise, and demographic diversity, along with general business experience applicable to the activities of the firm Colley, Doyle, Logan, and Stettinius,p.
It is used in the screening and selection process. And 3 Specific Competencies-This is expressed as technical skills bibliography sample for school project strategic competencies. Technical skills assist the organization with specific and ongoing aspects of organizational policy or governance business and individuals with these competencies assist the board in the oversight role.
Where as strategic competencies help the board to move forward in its strategic direction. Figure1 demonstrates the hierarchy of competency model 18 Chapter Three — Theoretical Framework The difference in performance by the individual, the team and the organization is characterized by the level of competence.
When competence is expressed in behavior, it contributes to successful performance and is measured favorably against accepted standards IBID The purpose of the competencies is to recruit, develop and retain board members who will: The Companies Act stipulates companies to have three decision-making bodies in a hierarchical relationship to one another: Swedish companies have corporate governance structure which is regulated by a combination of statutory rules, self-regulation and unwritten practice and traditions.
The Swedish Companies Act contains fundamental rules regarding company organization- it stipulates which corporate bodies a company is required to have, the tasks of each of these bodies and the responsibilities of the people within each body. The Swedish code allows companies to deviate from Code rules if this leads to better corporate governance, i. In practice, however, such powers are rarely used in listed companies, where they would most likely trigger the immediate resignation of the board directors IBID.
The Board duty includes monitoring and analysis of how the code is applied in practice and ensures whether the introduction of any modifications or changes deemed necessary and appropriate. The board has high school essay contest 2013 obligation to act responsibly when it comes to delegating; consequently, monitoring that such delegation can be maintained IBID.
The board an example of an argumentative essay consist of a minimum of three members, one of whom is to be appointed as chair man. The chair has special responsibility for leading the work of the board and making sure whether it fulfils all its legal obligations.
Boards of Swedish listed companies are composed entirely or predominantly of non-executive directors. It is stated in the code also that a majority of the members of the board are to be independent of the company and its management.
This agrees with the positive view of active and responsible ownership expressed in the preparatory documents to the Swedish Companies Act IBID. The board members must fulfill the following criteria; first they must have diversity and breadth of qualifications, experience and background. Second, there should be equal gender distribution among board members and no more than one member of the board is expected to hold a position in executive management of the company or a subsidiary IBID.
Profitability helps a firm to ensure, its solvency, for owners to invest in the future. A firm can go out of business, if it incurs loses and become insolvent Rogers,pp Profit is generally created only when a company operates effectively. Inter firm comparisons of profitability are comparisons of accounting profit among firms, and indicate the extent that different accounting methods are employed by firms or industries.
Such comparisons are of questionable legitimacy and accuracy, since the accounting profitability of an industry is most unlikely that identical accounting policies can apply equally throughout all firms.
Financial performance, measures of profitability and market value, and others, are considered as indicators of how well the firm satisfies its owners and shareholders. The ultimate goal for most firms is to increase their financial performance, particularly for public firms in shareholder value Blocher et al. And the aim of performance measurement systems is to provide operational control and to provide external financial reporting Kuwaiti,p.
Having the problem associated with operationalizing value maximization, it is surprising that companies tend to continue with familiar approaches to performance measurement that academic writers online review upon accepted accounting principles.
While opponents of traditional financial measures deny the use of accounting based measures of performance, in practice the differences between cash flow, economic profit, and accounting profit indicators of performance evaluation are narrowed.
Grant,p. Generally financial statement of a firm contains the information needed to make decisions regarding a business. The three following indicators of accounting profitability of a firm are used.
The result represents the return you have made on the dollars that you invested in your business. Over several years, if your return on equity is lower than a certain minimum industry requirement over several years, you may consider selling your business and investigating the proceeds in bonds.
As a consequence your return would be similar, your risk and the work much less Tyson and Schell,p. Public corporations also use ROE just like book value per share, it generally plays a secondary role and is not the dominant factor driving market prices Tracy,p. Return on equity is the most appropriate profitability and potential growth indicators and it is the return obtained by the owners of the firm in exchange for providing equity.
A business that has a high return on equity is more likely to be one that is capable of generating cash internally. For the most part, when return on equity of the company is higher as compared to its industry, the better the company is doing Holz,p It is computed by dividing the amount of net profit by gross sales. The profit margin is not fully understood by people invested in the market, though; it is often used for comparative purpose between companies and historical analysis.
As a consequence, profit margin is expected unrealistically by market analysts and investors. Additionally, the acceptable level of profit varies among industries. For example, one industry may experience lower or higher average profit margin than another and this makes it impractical to arrive at a specific accounting standard for measuring profitability. Comparisons should be restricted to those among corporations in the same business line Thomsett,p. Return on Investment ROI is a traditional performance management tool.
DuPont Power Company developed it in the early s to help manage the vertically integrated homework websites for teachers. It is used to evaluate the performance of the company or its department by comparing its accounting measure of income to its accounting measure of investment. The formula to measure ROI is: Since long time ROI has been a valuable measurement tool and was the emerging tool to place a value on the payoff from capital investments.
Currently, the application of the concept is being expanding to all types of investments Phillips and Phillips,p.
ROI helps management to reduce the factors of intuition and judgment to an interpretable mathematical calculation and compare alternative uses of invested capital. The first part introduces our selection of sample and the criteria in which we have selected, and then we admission essay writing 7 band the statistical tools in which we are going to compute and analyze our data in the next chapter. Regarding the topic many researches have done in US, UK and Australia and as researchers from Sweden, we found it of high interest to find out what it looks like in Swedish case.
When conducting a research, considering the selection of samples is a vital one and so data is collected on the 92 large companies trading in the OMX Nordic Exchange Stockholm and include in the list OMX Stockholm as of Babbie,p. The actual number of companies in our database is 63 covering the period from to For example, management can man is a social animal an incentive to increase current period profit by postponing the expense to subsequent period in order to get a bonus.
So taking average long period data for ROE minimizes the short comings Dechow,p. One of the most commonly used sampling method in research is probably convenience sampling. Researchers make use of participants those individuals who are easy to be reached Gravetter and Forzano,p.
The factors in selecting the companies depend on the availability of data; hence we can find the data in English for the large listed companies. Additionally, subjects are included in the study because they happened to be in the right place at the right time. Desired sample size is reached by feeding the available subjects.
It is a non probability sampling method and is one of the most often used methods among the non probability methods in quantitative studies Burns, and Grove, p. Convenience sampling can be criticized to be a weak form of sampling for the reason that the researcher makes no attempt to know the population or to use a random process in selection. The researcher has very little control over the representativeness of the sample and, therefore, the possibility that the obtained sample to be biased is great.
But in our study, we use a strategy to help correct most of the serious problems associated with convenience sampling. We try to ensure that our samples are reasonably representative and not strongly biased. Almost every industry association, government agency, business publication and news medium offers free information to those tenacious enough to find their websites.
There are so many websites offering data that finding the right ones can become an almost overwhelming task Armstrong et al. For the reason stated above, this study entirely uses secondary data. And it is classified as documentary secondary data. People are enthusiastic to provide information because it results in financial or other benefit to them. Data access is particularly fundamental to the production of policy relevant social science research which comprises detailed information about individual units and particular longitudinal micro data, and repeated observations on the same units National Academic Press,p.
It is argued that only when a researcher shares data with other researchers can the accuracy of the data, analyses, and conclusions be verified. Researchers with different perspectives apply their own 25 Chapter Four — Practical Method perspectives to the same body of information; as a result the bias inherent in individual perspectives reduces.
We believe the access in this study to be high since we access and extract the data from the Data Stream database and the annual reports. Unrestricted access to the data we used to derive conclusions also builds our confidence in the process and outcomes of research. We are therefore delighted with degree of access we encountered. Preparation of data includes such things like editing and structuring data and coding them for analysis.
It should be clearly labeled to ensure that data sets are not misinterpreted or misplaced Peter and Donnelly,p. In order for us to be able to get meet our purpose for our research, we use descriptive statistics when processing the data, as descriptive statistics present quantitative description in a manageable form by using graphs, charts, and tables and the calculation of various statistical measures to organize and summarize information.
And it helped us to reduce our mexican slang essay to a manageable size and put it into focus Babbie, p. According to Curwin and Slater p.
Usually the quantity of data that an organization needs to manage can be immense; therefore, there can literally be thousand of figures relating business activities. Data needs to be summarized and presented so that people can understand what is happening. Therefore we use diagrammatic representation to transform the raw data into an attractive diagram and offer a quick way of summarizing these large amounts of data and thus getting the general message across.
Curwin and Slater, p. Bryman and Bellp. This study refers to bivariate analysis that analysis of two variables at a time in order to discover whether or not the two variables are related.
This kind of analysis uses correlation to identify the relationship between the selected variables using SPSS as a statistical tool. We will analyze our hypothesis based on four variables to assess the board compositions which are: Then we will measure the performance of the company with an accounting perspective by taking return on equity as a measure of the accounting performance of the firm i.
It can be performed with a wide range of statistics t-tests, correlations. In hypothesis testing, researchers use sample data to draw logical conclusions on the results of a research study and to make inferences on a population of interest. In general there is no formal hypothesis, and perhaps the purpose of the study is to explore some area more thoroughly in order to develop some specific hypothesis or prediction that can be tested in future research.
A single study may have one or many hypotheses. We can start hypothesis testing by making a tentative assumption about a population parameter. This tentative assumption is called the null hypothesis and is denoted by Ho. We then define another hypothesis, called the alternative hypothesis, which is the opposite of what is stated in the null hypothesis.
We denote the alternative hypothesis by H1. The hypothesis testing procedure uses data from a sample to assess the two competing null and alternative hypotheses Anderson, Sweeney and Williams,p. Significant level test: In order to establish a rejection rule for null hypothesis, we considered factors which show the strength or significance of the relationship. And it determines whether the probability dissertation digital the observed correlation occurred is by chance or not.
The most commonly used correlation statistic is the Pearson correlation coefficient. It measures both the strength and direction of the linear relationship between two variables.
Bryman and Bell,pp The magnitude of the number shows or represents the strength of the relationship between the variables. ROE H1: ROE This is denoted statistically as follow Ho: The absolute value of accounting profitability cannot be explained from independent variables in this model.
Model Two: Age of BM Where: FEM b. Dependent Variable: ROE Table The Regression Result of all independent variables and Av. ROE 45 6.
The research question and purpose of the study that was presented in the introduction of this thesis will be answered. The purpose of this study is to analyze the level of correlation between selected board composition factors and accounting profitability of the firm.
To meet this purpose we draw our conclusion and answer thesis for master research question. When answering our research question we took selected board composition factors namely: Our study is based on the final sample size of 63 Swedish Large Caps.
ROE and the following results were found. As far as considering the relationship between number of directors and the accounting profitability measure Av. ROEwe found no significant relationship between them. This means our results show the change in number of directors does not have significant contribution on profitability of Swedish large firms. Regarding the correlation between percentages of independent directors and accounting profitability measure Av.
ROEthe same result was found like board size. It implies that the firm may record profit regardless of whether they are governed by more insider dominated board of directors or not. Here we are considering the relationship between board competency and the accounting profitability measurement Av.
Where as, in the case of the proportion of female directors, we obtained a significant correlation between the accounting profitability measure Av. ROE and percentage of female directors. Firms which have high proportion of female directors show higher average return on equity Av. In general we conclude that some of the board composition drivers such as board size, independency of board member and competency of director do not have significant impact on profitability of Swedish large firms.
However proportion of female directors has a positive impact on profitability of Swedish large firms. Therefore, is better for the shareholders to give special attention when recruiting the board member regarding the proportion of female directors since the shareholders benefit from having more females in the board.
Especially for the period to due to financial crises ROE were very much fluctuated. And this may have impact on the results found. And since our study focuses on the accounting measurement of profitability as a measure of performance of the companies, the results could be different if taken non-financial measures or both financial and non-financial measures at the same time together. Quality Critera Validity Reliability Generalization 7. It is not the result that can be valid or invalid but, rather, the inference of measurement is important.
In conventional usage, validity refers to the extent of adequacy of an empirical measure and reflects the real meaning of the concept under consideration. Validity means that we are actually measuring what we suppose to measure A dissertation on artificial teeth evincing the advantages of teeth made of mineral paste,p. In order to analyze the relationship between board composition and accounting profitability of a firm, we conducted correlation in our study, since correlation measures relationships between two or more variables.
The collected empirical data was analyzed with SPSS which is the most widely used statistical computer software for our quantitative data. As the measurement for the accounting profitability we took the AV. Therefore we are convinced that our measurement approaches are appropriate and really measure what they are supposed to measure. Reliability is particularly at issue in connection with quantitative research in which the researcher is likely to be concerned with question of whether a measure is stable or not Bryman and Bell, pp When we conduct the study it is important to clarify the trustworthiness of the resources.
The model we used has been tested with certain times by prior researchers, and it is a mature model. To process our quantitative data we use SPSS as a tools, we strongly believe that the computation and processing of data is accurate, controllable and replicable. According Bryman and Bellp. Schutt,p. Where sample generalizability is defined as whether the finding from a sample of the population can be generalized to the population from which the sample was selected.
While cross-population refers to whether the finding from a study of one population can be generalized to another or different population. We believe this study is of high quality referring to the issue of generalizability. Regarding to the sample size, it represents the population since we took all large caps which is listed in OMX — Stockholm though we exclude some of them due to the reason we mentioned in the practical as well as the empirical sections of the study.
Additionally because we use quantitative methods with statistical tools to conduct our research we believe our findings can be generalized to other study of different population. Since this study focuses only on the Swedish Large Caps during a rather short period of time, we could suggest that further study should be done regarding small and middle caps. Therefore the study could be more adequate and representative to all Swedish companies.
To measure the performance of the companies our study focused on accounting profitability measures-financial measures.
We recommend extending the study using other performance measures-non financial measures. It could be interesting as it could be done using both financial and non financial performance measures as well. Books and Articles -Agrawal,A. South-Western Cengage —Learning. Statistics for Business and -Armstrong, G. An Introduction. Pearsons Education Limited. Introduction to Research in Education.
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