In the growth and development of the individual, the role of the society may be explored by taking into consideration that, though man is a social animal, he is not born as such.
In his initial stages, his basic needs determine the course of his living. A child in its early years is not conscious of the culture into which it is born, but in the later stages he is gradually moulded by his environment and the social institutions around him. According to the German philosopher, Fichte, man acquires his human qualities only after coming into contact with society.
Therefore, it is maintained by several thinkers that the individual is a social product. It is undeniable that the society, even the primitive one, shapes and moulds the course of life of the individual. A child, when it comes to this world, has no sensibility of business plan writer melbourne relations; but by the time it reaches adulthood it places upon itself the imprint of the.
Sociologists have studied the cases of certain individuals, who did not have the benefit of society from their childhood and consequently did not develop signs of social consciousness and behaviour. In Germany, one Kaspar Hauser remained without any social contact till the age of seventeen, and when he happened to wander into the city of Nuremberg in he could hardly walk; he had the mind of an infant and took, inanimate objects for living beings.
He spoke no language but, like an animal, could make certain inarticulate sounds. After his death, a postmortem study revealed that his brain development was subnormal. The wolf girls, Amala and Kamala, discovered from wolf den in India in were similarly subnormal.
Amala died soon after she came into human contact, but Kamala lived for a few years, walking on all fours, devoid of all human qualities and even apprehensive of human contact. Initially, the child did not have any consciousness of her human self, but gradually a development of a kind of human individuality took place in her.
The third example is that of Anna, an illegitimate American child who was kept isolated in a room at the age of six months. It must be considered how the child goes through a process of socialization. However, initially we have to come to the inescapable conclusion that the unit- whole relationship of the individual and the society is essential to the growth of the self and the personality of the human being.
In the couse of his growth, as the child advances from making a few sounds to uttering articulate language, the individual too replaces his egocentric biographical college essay by a rational co-ordination, as Jean Piaget calls k. He is neither the beginning, nor the end; he is a link in the succession of life not only in the biological sense but in the sociological one too.
He is born on the soil of this earth no doubt, but the picture becomes complete when we relate his nature and nurture to his social environment or his social heritage. Therefore, when Aristotle, says that man is a social animal, and we agree with the statement, were merely comprehend the fundamental interdependence of the individual and his social heritage. As McIver says, an individual personality would have no meaning without society and the support of the social heritage.
It has already been noted that a child is not born with social consciousness and that he gradually acquires with his growth a sense of social relationship that leads him to variegated experiences.
In this way not only is the child socialized, he is able to maintain a distinct link between the generations; and without a stable link between the different generations, stability of a society is unthinkable. Kingsley Davis maintains that without the process of socialization, no individual can become his human self, that is, social self.
Bogardus thinks that through socialization individuals not only establish an inter-relationship between themselves, but begin to consider their mutual welfare and carry out their respective social responsibilities. McIver contends that the social heritage determines the self of the individual and socialization helps the individual to build up organisations for the purpose of establishing and maintaining relations between themselves. Hence, the process of socialization helps to develop the individual as also to make him conscious of his social obligations befitting his role in the society.
A functional pre-requisite of a society is the integration of the activities of individuals and the ordering of social relations. There will be a co-ordination in a society of the different statuses and roles that different individuals will be required to assume.
Learning the social role is, therefore, one of the primary obligations of a social individual and. Johnny knows cv writing services us wellington his mother finds him smart.
He would feel distressed even about his true good looks if he has heard people despising his appearance. At first, the child takes the role of the parents and then of other like playmates, teachers and friends; and in each of these stages the child steps into the other person s shoes and looks at himself through his own eyes.
In other words, it develops attitudes towards itself through the attitude of the other.
A child plays with her doll and imagines herself to be its mother. In this process, she is able to develop her attitudes towards herself. If, in the course of his socialization, the child is obstructed by the members of the family, and his initial status in the family is not earned, the process remains incomplete and his healthy growth is ruled out. Similarly, if the parents either pamper or unwittingly suppress the personality of a child, it will have corresponding adverse effects.
If parents confidently refer to a child, there is every possibility of the child growing up as a confident man.
What is meant is that our self-attitudes are initially the attitudes of the other members of our family. Freud holds that the social relations of a child are primarily determined by his family environment. Just as healthy soil determines the healthy growth of a child, appropriate environment is required for completing the process of socialization of a child. When an I experimenter seeks to measure the effects of environment upon a child as distinct I from his hereditary traits, he cannot fail to observe the effect of socialization upon I him.
When even monozygotic twins, or identical twins as they are called, are reared apart, they are seen to have developed different mental abilities and responses. This should emphasize the importance of socialization in developing the individual. In the physical sense, it has the characteristics of a unit, detached from others. In the biological sense, the term stands for a living creature that is able to respond to external stimuli and control itself.
An organism that has a few simple reactions will possess, therefore, less of individuality than the one that is organized, like man, to finer and more sensitive reactions to external surroundings.
However, the term in the sociological sense means that a human being does not merely imitate and that his social responses are not merely spontaneous as those of a slave of habit. As McIver says, the degree in which he possesses and manifests these qualities is the degree in which he possesses individuality. Individuality, in the sociological sense, is less marked in a primitive society than in the more organized and complex ones.
In fact, in a modern complex society there is a greater demand for and recognition of, individuality. Apart from the fact that even in the expression of our language one distinctly notices the stamp of individuality, and so perhaps in many spheres of life, one cannot afford to disagree with the proposition that it would be a tedious matter to have every member of the society endowed with like capabilities.
If all men were to think alike and to work alike, progress in society would be halted, and this helps to explain why for several centuries man did not advance in civilization by many degrees. One may venture to say that the absence of individuality accounted for the slow advance of the primitive community.
The task of the sociologist is not to find out whether or not a person really enjoys the freedom in society to cultivate his individuality; that is for the politician daniel polenske dissertation build up his polemics upon.
But the sociologist most certainly has to take into account the importance of the following questions in his study of the individual — society relationship: I Can any society truly and completely integrate individuals within the social order?
One may hold the view that interests of different individuals will always result in conflicts and clashes, and social harmony can hardly be achieved. We may strive to achieve the harmony and the integration which the primitive society knew at least temporarily, but the prominence of the cult of individuality will always be a treat to social integration.
The ultimate objective of such studies is often the application of principles for ensuring welfare of the people. Stratification of society, race, class, caste, religion, gender, culture, language, conventions, norms, deviance behaviour that violates social normscrime and punishment, health, poverty, family structure, and social mobility are some of the concerns of sociology.
There are different areas of specialisation and research in sociology such as social change, social stratification, social movements, inter-ethnic relations, sociology of education, backward classes, caste system, race relations, poverty alleviation, clinical sociology, sociology of communication, sociology of deviance, juvenile delinquency, industrial sociology, social psychology, sociology of law, sociology of health, environmental sociology, military sociology, sociology of migration, spouse abuse, child abuse, disability and society, drug addiction, alcoholism and family life, gender inequalities, law and governance, identity crises, politics and society, international social policy, and demography.
Research in this discipline is mostly based on experience or experiments rather than theories. In other words, the studies are based on empirical data.
These may check and confirm the related theories. We may have an informed guess on possible relationships. There has to be extensive gathering of data, backed up by painstaking observation. There can be elaborate surveys using written questionnaires or a series of verbal interviews.
Studies of relevant records or statistics prepared by government departments or reliable private agencies can also be used in certain cases. Experiments followed by statistical analysis of data are necessary to gauge the extent of social changes and to establish correlations.
Measures for social corrections can be evolved from the findings of such studies and evaluation. The validity and reliability of the findings will naturally depend on faithful gathering of data. Unlike in physical science research, there may be unethical attempts from vested interests to influence the manipulation of data and to project distorted conclusions.
True researchers have to be wary of this pitfall that may discredit their dedicated efforts to arrive at the truth. Sociology and social work are different, though there are areas of overlap. They are distinct fields in their own right. We have seen different definitions of sociology.
Social work is concerned with alleviation of problems of individuals in society. A sociologist will be interested not only in the plight of a poor man but also in how poverty affects society as a whole.
Social work has a focus on helping individuals, groups, or communities. It may also try to bring about a change in policies aimed at the welfare of society. Social work will involve the applications of various disciplines such as sociology, economics, psychology, education, public health, development, criminology, and so on. A scholar once succinctly put the difference thus: There are government departments as well as philanthropic organisations carrying out social work in our society.
These offer career opportunities for those with compassion and commitment.
Aristotle, the Greek philosopher writes "Man is a social animal.
He who lives without society is either a beast or God". Thus, man is by nature a social animal.
He is born in society lives in society and dies in society. Society is indispensable for man.
Man cannot live as man, without society.