How useful is subcultural theory for understanding virtual communities? Here, the focus of attention is not so much to discover something about the social world, for example virtual communities, as to reach a judgement about the value of key concepts or theories in understanding that world. How the study is approached and how contrasting approaches are drawn upon needs to be stated very clearly.
Remember that theoretical studies, like data-based studies, need to have their research design spelled out from the start. But even if your dissertation is more empirically focused, it could still be entirely literature-based.
You might choose to conduct a review of a field of work. What does the research literature in this field tell us about x? While all dissertations will include a literature review, it is possible to produce a dissertation that is entirely based on a review of the literature.
If you do this, it is important to review the literature from an explicit angle and identify some themes to make the review distinctive. You might, for example, explore empirical debates in your chosen field across different countries or time periods. Whilst it is possible for dissertations to be entirely literature-based, the most common form of dissertation takes the form of a case study. Here the focus of attention is on a particular community, organisation or set of documents.
The attraction of this kind of dissertation is that it stems from empirical curiosity but is at the same time practical. You may be interested in a wider question but a case study enables you to focus on a specific example.
A major challenge in case study dissertations is connecting your own primary research or re-analysis with the broader theoretical themes and empirical concerns of the existing literature. Most dissertations demand either primary or secondary research. In other words, you usually have to analyse data that you have either collected yourself or data that is already available. The reason for this is that the questions dissertations usually address take the following form: Is x happening?
Is x changing? Why is x happening? Why is x changing? These questions demand primary or secondary analysis of data.
Case Study 9 Think hard before you decide to undertake empirical research: Secondary analysis is when you analyse data which was collected by another researcher. It allows the researcher to explore areas of interest without having to go through the process of collecting data themselves in the field.
The problem with using fieldwork methods in an undergraduate dissertation, however, is that they are costly in terms of time which is relatively scarce in your final year! You may choose, therefore, to undertake secondary research, analysing existing data. There are a range of documents that already contain research data that you can analyse. You may, for example, be interested in exploring whether gender stereotypes in the media are changing.
This might entail content analysis of newspapers, magazines, video or other media over different time periods. Here you would not be collecting your own data but instead would be analysing existing documents. Download Case Study 6 Media research. If you are interested, for example, in doing historical research, you may need to visit archives. Government reports and autobiographies may also be used as data. Other documents include official statistics, datasets statistical dataand banks of interview transcripts which are all freely available to the academic community.
Increasingly, documents, term paper writing services 10 and archives are readily accessible online. Research Methods tutors on your course will be able to advise on the availability and accessibility of such data sets.
There are some advantages of doing secondary analysis, particularly if you are doing a quantitative study. You will be able to work with much larger datasets than you could have collected yourself. This has the following advantages:. Quantitative data may also result from non-participant observations or other measurements e.
Also, sometimes data that are collected through qualitative processes participant observation, interviews are coded and quantified. Your research methods tutor can give you further information on these types of data, but here are some common quantitative data collection methods and their definitions:. A series of questions that the respondent answers on their own. Self-completion questionnaires are good for collecting data on relatively simple topics, and for gaining a general overview of an issue.
Questionnaires need to have clear questions, an easy to follow design, and not be too long. Similar to a self-completion questionnaire, except that the questions that are asked by an interviewer to the interviewee.
The same questions are read out in the same way to all respondents. There will typically be a fixed choice of answers for the respondents. Watching people and recording systematically their behaviour. Prior to the observation, an observation schedule will be produced which details what exactly the researcher should look for and how those observations should be recorded. If you are conducting a qualitative apa style term paper you are likely to wish to use at least some original material.
This may be collected through in-depth interviews, participant observation recordings and fieldnotes, non-participant observation, or some combination of these.
Below are some data collection methods that you australian essay service want to use for your dissertation:.
A way of asking questions which allows the interviewee to have more control of the interview. A form of interviewing where there are several participants; there is an emphasis in the questioning on a tightly defined topic; the accent is on interaction within the group and the joint construction of meaning. The moderator tries to provide a relatively free rein to the discussion. This involves studying people in naturally occurring settings. The researcher participates directly in the setting and collects data in a systematic manner.
The researcher will observe behaviour, listen to conversations, and ask questions. Spend some time looking at general books about research - they will give you an overview of the data collection methods available and help you to make the best choice for your order of authors on research papers. Bryman would be a useful starting point. For any piece of research you conduct, be it empirically based quantitative or qualitative or library based, its methods must be justified.
You need to show in the final dissertation how you have given consideration to different methods, and why you have chosen and eliminated these. Often in early supervision meetings they ask students to justify their reasons for choosing a library-based or an empirical study. Todd, Smith and Bannisterp This was particularly useful for one of our respondents:. With other essays you can rush them if you have to It demands more.
Todd, Bannister and Clegg,p …. My reasons for data collection is literature based as my research question involved sensitive subjects which would have been unsuitable for primary data collection. Level 6 students at Sheffield Hallam University I chose primary data because it would enable me to build skills that would be useful for postgraduate study.
Level 6 students at Sheffield Hallam University It will involve primary data, secondary data, quantitative and qualitative research methods, lit reviews, theory and policy studies and an exploration of alternatives. The advantages of the computer questionnaires include their inexpensive price, time-efficiency, and respondents do not feel pressured, therefore can argumentative persuasive when they have time, giving more accurate answers.
However, the main shortcoming of the mail questionnaires is that sometimes respondents do not bother answering them and they can just ignore the questionnaire. Telephone questionnaire. Researcher may choose to call potential respondents with the aim of getting them to answer the questionnaire.
The advantage of the telephone questionnaire is that, it can be completed during the short amount of time. The main disadvantage of the phone questionnaire is that it is expensive most of the time. Moreover, most people do not feel comfortable to answer many questions asked through the phone and it is difficult to get sample group to answer questionnaire over the phone.
In-house survey. This type of questionnaire involves the researcher visiting respondents in their houses or workplaces. The advantage of in-house survey is that more focus towards the questions can be gained from respondents.
However, in-house surveys also have a range of disadvantages which include being time consuming, more expensive and respondents may not wish to have the researcher in their houses or workplaces for various reasons.
Mail Questionnaire. This sort of questionnaires involve the researcher to send the questionnaire list to respondents through post, often attaching pre-paid envelope. Mail questionnaires have an advantage of providing more accurate answer, because respondents can answer the questionnaire in their spare time.
Your answers will be treated as completely confidential by the National Research Council and will only be released as part of cover letters for resume statistical analysis. Do you supervise dissertations, serve on doctoral committees, or teach graduate courses in a doctoral program? If you have difficulty locating your program on the list, please refer to the [Taxonomy] list with fields and subfields.
Please list all programs in which you supervise dissertations, serve on dissertation committees, or teach graduate courses and the average percentage of your time during the past year that you spent in all activities for each program with which you are associated.
Do not list programs where you are an outside reader. For the articles and books that you have published in the past five years, please list what fields you have published in Table 1. If you have a single cheap custom essay papers that spans multiple fields, please indicate them and their fields in Table 2.
Year first employed at current institution: Do you consider part of your research to be interdisciplinary? To what extent does the field of your current research, teaching, or professional activities differ from the field of your highest degree?
Please provide your preferred e-mail address where online college essay can be reached if there are questions. One innovation we are considering is adding student responses about the educational processes of the program. You have been selected to receive this questionnaire because you are a student who has completed over half of your doctoral program.
The assessment of research doctoral programs is conducted approximately every ten years and consists of a reputational survey of doctoral programs and the collection of data about doctoral faculty and students in fifty-four areas of study. This questionnaire will provide information that will assist the study in a number of ways: Individual answers will not be shared with faculty or administrators of your doctoral program except in aggregated form.
During the course of your study for the Ph. Of the following sources of support, which have been your primary sources during your doctoral studies? Check the three largest. During your doctoral program have you received or will you receive instruction, practice or professional development training in:. In your doctoral program did you have an opportunity to obtain teaching experience? Check the type s of teaching experience you have had:. Do you have one or more faculty members at your institution that you consider mentors i.
Considering the overall intellectual environment of your university, how much do you feel you have benefited from it? Are the library resources available to you adequate to support your research and education? How many research presentations including poster presentations have you made at research conferences. How many research publications have you authored or co-authored during your doctoral studies include pieces accepted for publication but not yet published? One innovation that we are considering is to add student responses to questions about the educational process of the program.
You have been selected to receive this questionnaire because you are a student who has received a Ph. Individual answers will not be shared with faculty or administrators of your former doctoral program except in aggregated form. Were you enrolled as a full-time student throughout your Ph. During your Ph. List chronologically starting with the most recent. Turn recording back on.
National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Search term. D Sample Questionnaires. These questionnaires are subject to further review and revision. Institutional Questionnaire. Institutional Questionnaire To the institutional coordinator: For the libraries at your institution: Please enter the average over the past three years a.
What is the average size of your professional library staff in total FTEs? What is the average annual library budget? What is the average annual budget for acquisition of books? What is the average annual budget for acquisition of: What is the average annual budget for microprint and electronic databases? Is health care insurance available to graduate students under an institutional plan?
Yes No a. If available, health care insurance is made available to: If available, what is the level of institutional support? Check all that apply Institution covers premium costs for: Does the university provide childcare facilities that are available to graduate students?
If yes, is the cost subsidized by the institution? If not, does the institution provide a listing of childcare providers to graduate students? Is university-subsidized student housing available to doctoral students?
Are graduate students are unionized on your campus? Which of the following apply to the doctoral program at the institutional level?
Program Questionnaire Background Information This information will enable the National Research Council to contact you if there are any questions about the data. View in own window Name Prior employer Position at that employer. View in own window d. View in own window Externally funded fellowships: Program Identification a. Table 1 Books and articles in a single field published dissertation filing ucsb the past 3 years View in own window Field see Taxonomy Articles Books.
Table 2 Books and articles in multiple fields published in the past 3 years View in own window Field Enter all that apply Articles Books.
Questionnaires can be classified as both, quantitative and qualitative method depending on the nature of questions.
Specifically, answers obtained through closed-ended questions with multiple choice answer options are analyzed using quantitative methods and hamlet essay prompts may involve pie-charts, bar-charts and dissertation research methods questionnaire. Answers obtained to open-ended questionnaire questions are analyzed using qualitative methods and they involve discussions and critical analyses without use of numbers and calculations.
For a standard 15, word business dissertation, including questions in questionnaires will usually suffice.
Questions need be formulated in an unambiguous and straightforward manner and they should be presented in a logical order. Advantages of questionnaires include increased speed of data collection, low or no cost requirements, and higher levels of objectivity compared to many alternative methods of primary data collection.
However, questionnaires have certain disadvantages such as selection of random answer choices by dissertation research methods questionnaire without properly reading the question.