The subject of active present perfect verbs is often general: Researchers have found, Studies have suggested. The present simple could also be used here, but the present perfect focuses more on what has been done than on what is known to be true now present simple.
In the following example, there are two opposite findings, so neither is the accepted state of knowledge:. The present perfect forms a connection between the past previous research and the present your study. So, you say what has been found and then how you will contribute to the field.
This is also useful when you want to point out a gap in the existing research. The passive voice is common in the present perfect tense to describe previous findings without referring directly to the original paper: The passive voice allows you to move the subject of your research into a place in the sentence where it will have more focus.
You can also use the present perfect to tell the history of your idea what has created it? Hawes, Thomas, and Doctoral dissertation improvement Thomas. Penrose, Ann, and Steven Katz. Writing in the Sciences: Exploring the Conventions of Scientific Discourse.
Pearson Longman, In statistics, the word refers to an asymmetric distribution of data.
Nowhere in the definition is there any reference to the state of being incorrect or more scattered. Thus, not only is the word overused, it is also misused. We rationalized the finding that blocking the sodium pump had no affect on uptake of glucose by suggesting that the symport mechanism depends solely on the sodium gradient, which persists long after the pump is shut down.
Try A likely explanation for the finding However since investigators usually refer to sets of data, there is a tendency to use the word as though it was singular. We used an oscilloscope an experiential learning essay measure resting potentials in crayfish muscle.
The spectrophotometer or oscilloscope may be a novel, mysterious, and versatile device to you, but I suspect that even an expert biochemist would have a hard time finding a protein concentration using only a spectrophotometer. The first statement leaves out the dye reagent, standards, pipettors, etc. The second statement omits any reference to the micropipets or the specialized electronic instrumentation that is required in order to measure transmembrane potentials.
What information did you intend to convey? If you intend to describe the methodology, then write a complete description. If you intend only to summarize the procedures then you might seek a phrase that sums up what was done without oversimplifying.
For example, "We used a colorimetric assay to determine protein concentrations in each of our samples. The purpose of a discussion is to interpret the results, not to simply state them in a different way. In most cases a superficial discussion ignores mechanisms or fails to explain them completely. It should be clear to the reader why a specific result came to pass. The statement, "The result agreed with the known theoretical value," tells us nothing about the mechanism s behind the result.
What is the basis for expecting a particular result? Explanations may not be easy and your explanation may not be correct, but you will get most or all of the available credit for posing a reasonable explanation, even if it is not quite right.
Superficial statements, on the other hand, will unc masters thesis joanne glenn you.
Sometimes you cannot easily find the right wording in order to explain a cause and effect relationship, or you may not understand the concept well enough in order to write an explanation.
Anthropomorphism is title of a book in an essay type of oversimplification that helps the writer avoid a real explanation of a mechanism. A couple of examples should make the point for you. The thought behind the statement is correct, but the statement does not represent the correct mechanism.
Sodium has no free will. It tends to move toward the compartment with lower concentration because the probability of a sodium ion moving through a channel on the more concentrated side of the membrane exceeds the probability that an ion will move through a channel on the less concentrated side.
Once you have presented converted data, do not present the same data in a different way. Present a figure such as a graph if appropriate. If the data are better represented by a table, then use a table. The caption with any figure or table should include all pertinent information. One should not have to go into the body of the paper to find out the results of statistical tests on the data, or the rationale behind a curve fit. Raw data are not usually included in your results.
Raw data include lists of observations, meaurements taken in order to obtain a final result e. Use an appropriate number of decimal places if you need decimal places at all to report means and other measured or calculated values. See our analytical resources for information on uncertain quantities and significant figures.
Tables are distinguished from figures, and are numbered consecutively as well. For example, a paper with two graphs, a reproduction of a segment of chart record and two tables will have figures 1, 2, and 3, and tables 1 and 2.
Do note that I distinguished graphs from chart records. Not everything with gridlines is a graph. Graphs are analytical tools. Chart records are raw data which may be presented in results as an example, if appropriate. Do not draw conclusions in the results section. Reserve data interpretation for the discussion. Copyright and Intended Use Visitors: Caprette caprette rice.
Laboratory Studies. Laboratory Methods. The last one had me puzzled. What the article actually reported was that the two had hidden in a trailer which was driven out of prison, allowing them to escape.
I grew up speaking and reading English the American version, that is. Imagine the difficulty faced by a non-native speaker who learns proper English and then reads the local rag or tries to make sense out of reports by "talking heads" on new shows. Subjectivity and use of superlatives Technical writing differs from the writing of fiction, opinion pieces, scholarly English papers, etc.
Proof See my essay on fact, hypothesis, and theory. The requirements for scientific proof are extremely rigorous. It is highly doubtful that any find dissertations online yale experiment can be so well controlled that its conclusions can be regarded as proof.
In fact, for any result to be accepted it must be confirmed independently. In fact, we can never know if a model as we describe it presents an accurate picture of any natural process. We can never look at the original blueprint to check our conclusions. Grammar and spelling Please avoid obvious grammatical errors. However, clear written communication requires proper sentence structure and use of words. Superficiality The purpose of a discussion is to interpret the results, not to simply state them in a different way.
Anthropomorphism Sometimes you cannot easily find the right wording in order to explain a cause and effect relationship, or you may not understand the concept well enough in order to write an explanation. Sodium wants to move down the chemical gradient toward the compartment with the lower concentration. The ETS works furiously in a vain attempt to restore the chemiosmotic gradient Wow.
Well, the adverb "furiously" is not only subjective, but it normally applies to a deliberate action. We know that the ETS electron transport system is a set of carrier complexes embedded in a membrane, and that it cannot be capable of a deliberate action.
Something that cannot act deliberately cannot think, either. There is a physical cause and effect relationship between the ETS and the chemiosmotic gradient that does not require attributing a free will to any part of the system. Common mistakes in reporting results Converted data are data that have been analyzed, usually summarized, and presented in such a way that only the information pertinent to the objectives of the study is presented. Raw data refers to results of individual replicate trials, individual observations, chart records, and other information that comes directly from the laboratory.
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Indonesian, http: Writing Research Papers Writing is easy. All you do is stare at a blank sheet of paper until drops of blood form on your forehead. A major goal of this course is the development of effective technical writing skills. To help you become an accomplished writer, you will prepare dissertation sciences co research papers based upon the studies completed in lab.