The thesis used to be 40—60 pages long, but has been reduced to 20—30 pages in new Bologna process programmes. The required submission for the doctorate is called doktorska disertacija doctoral dissertation. In Sweden, there are different types of theses. The undergraduate theses are called uppsatssometimes examensarbeteespecially at technical programmes. After that there are two types of post graduate theses, licentiate thesis and PhD dissertation. A licentiate degree is approximately "half a PhD" in terms of size and scope of the thesis.
Swedish PhD studies should in theory last for four years, including course work and thesis work, but as how to write an essay fast PhD students also teach, the PhD often takes longer to complete.
The thesis can be written as a monograph or as a compilation thesiswhere the introductory chapters are called kappaliterally coat. Outside the academic community, the terms thesis and dissertation are interchangeable. A wide range of supervisory arrangements can be found in the British academy, from single supervisors more usual for undergraduate and Masters level work to supervisory teams of up to three supervisors.
In teams, there will often be a Director of Studies, usually someone with broader experience perhaps having passed some threshold of successful supervisions. The Director may be involved with regular supervision along with the other supervisors, or may have more of an oversight role, with the other supervisors taking on the more day-to-day responsibilities of supervision.
In some U. These projects are called "senior projects" or "senior theses"; they are generally done in the senior year near graduation after having completed other courses, the independent study period, and the internship or student teaching period the completion of most of the requirements before the writing of the paper ensures adequate knowledge and aptitude for the challenge.
Like them, they can be lengthy and require months of work, they require supervision by at least one professor adviser, they must be focused on a certain area of knowledge, and they must use an appreciable amount of scholarly citations. They may or may not be defended before a committee but usually are not; there is generally no preceding examination before the writing of the paper, except for at very few colleges. Because of the nature of the graduate thesis or dissertation having to be more narrow and more novel, the result of original research, these usually have a smaller proportion of the work that is cited from other sources, though the fact that they are lengthier may mean they still have total citations.
Specific undergraduate courses, especially writing-intensive courses or courses taken by upperclassmen, may also require one or more extensive written assignments referred to variously as theses, essays, or papers. Increasingly, high schools are requiring students to complete a senior project or senior thesis on a chosen topic during the final year as a prerequisite for graduation.
The extended essay component of the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programmeoffered in a growing number of American high schools, is another example of this trend. Generally speaking, a dissertation is judged as to whether or not it makes an original and unique contribution to scholarship.
The required complexity or quality of research of a thesis may vary significantly among universities or programs. One of the requirements for certain advanced degrees is often an oral examination called a viva voce examination or just viva in the UK and certain other English-speaking countries. This examination normally occurs after the dissertation is finished but before it is submitted to the university, and may comprise a presentation often public by the student and questions posed by an examining committee or jury.
In North America, an initial oral examination in the field of specialization may take place just before the student settles down to work on the dissertation. An additional oral exam may take place after the dissertation is completed and is known as a thesis or dissertation " defense ", which at guide for dissertation writing universities may be a mere formality and at others may result in the student being required to make significant revisions.
The result of the examination may be given immediately following deliberation by the examiners in which case the candidate may immediately be considered to have received his or her degreeor at a later date, in which case the examiners may prepare a defense report that is forwarded to a Board or Committee of Postgraduate Studies, which then officially recommends the candidate for the degree. At most North American institutions the latter two verdicts are extremely rare, for two reasons.
First, to obtain the status of doctoral candidates, graduate students typically write a qualifying examination or comprehensive examination, which often includes an oral defense. Students who pass the qualifying examination are deemed capable of completing scholarly work independently and are allowed to proceed with working on a dissertation. order academic essay
It is also fairly rare for a thesis to be accepted without any revisions; the most common outcome of a defense is for the examiners to specify minor revisions which the candidate typically completes in a few days or weeks. At universities on the British pattern it doctoral dissertation assistance form not uncommon for theses at the viva stage to be subject to major revisions in which a substantial rewrite is required, sometimes followed by a new viva.
Very rarely, the thesis may be awarded the lesser degree of M. Phil Master of Philosophy instead, preventing the candidate from resubmitting the thesis.
In Australia, doctoral theses are usually examined by three examiners although some, like the Australian Catholic University and the University of New South Waleshave shifted to using only two examiners; without a live defense except in extremely rare exceptions. Following submission of the thesis, copies are sent by mail to examiners and then reports sent back to the institution.
In Germany, a thesis is usually examined with an oral examination. However, a process that allows for revisions of the thesis is usually only dissertation law methodology for doctoral degrees. There are several different kinds of oral examinations used in practice. The Disputationalso called Verteidigung "defense"is usually public at least to members of the university and is focused on the topic of the thesis.
In contrast, the Rigorosum is not held in public and also encompasses fields in addition to the topic of the thesis. The Rigorosum is only common for doctoral degrees. Another term for an oral examination is Kolloquiumwhich generally refers to a usually public scientific discussion and is often used synonymously with Verteidigung. In each case, what exactly is expected differs between universities and between faculties.
Some universities also demand a combination of several of these forms. Like the British model, the PHD or MPhil student is required to submit their theses or dissertation for examination by two or three examiners. The first examiner is from the university concerned, the second examiner is from another local university and the third examiner is from a suitable foreign university usually from Commonwealth countries. The choice of examiners must be approved by the university senate.
In some public universities, a PhD or MPhil candidate may also have to show a number publications in peer reviewed academic journals as part of the requirement. Paper plagiarism oral viva is conducted after the examiners have submitted their reports to the university. The oral viva session is attended by the Oral Viva chairman, a rapporteur with a PhD qualification, the first examiner, the second examiner and sometimes the third examiner.
Branch campuses of British, Australian and Middle East universities in Malaysia use the respective models of the home campuses to examine their PhD or MPhil candidates. In the Philippines, a thesis is followed by an oral defense. In most universities, this applies to all bachelor, master, and doctorate degrees.
However, the oral defense is held in once per semester usually in the middle or by the end with a presentation of revisions so-called "plenary presentation" at the end of each semester. The oral defense is typically not held in public for bachelor and master oral defenses, however a colloquium is held for doctorate degrees. Typical duration for the total exam is 1 hour 30 minutes for the MSc and 3 hours for the PhD. Each committee member will have been given a completed copy of the dissertation prior to the defense, and will come prepared to ask questions about the thesis itself and the subject matter.
The typical format will see the candidate giving a short 20—minute presentation of his or obesity term paper research, followed by one to two hours of questions. At some U. A student in Ukraine or Russia has to complete a thesis and then defend it in front of their department. After the presentation and defense of the thesis, the final conclusion of the department should be that none of them have reservations on the content and quality of the thesis.
A conclusion on the thesis has to be approved by the rector of the educational institute. The Diploma de estudios avanzados DEA can last two years and candidates must complete coursework and demonstrate their ability to research the specific topics they have studied.
After completing this part of the PhD, students begin a dissertation on a set topic. The dissertation must reach a minimum length depending on the subject and it is valued more highly if it contains field research. Once candidates have finished their written dissertations, they must present them before a committee.
Following this presentation, the examiners will ask questions. In Hong Kong, Ireland and the United Kingdom, the thesis defense is called a viva voce Latin for "by live voice" examination viva for short.
A typical viva lasts for approximately 3 hours, though there is no formal time limit. In the United Kingdom, there are only two or at most three examiners, and in many universities the examination is held in private.
However, some universities permit members of the faculty or the university to attend.
A submission of the thesis is the last formal requirement for most students after the defense. Other required forms may include library authorizations giving the university library permission to make the thesis available as part of its collection and copyright permissions in the event that the student has incorporated copyrighted materials in the thesis.
Many large scientific publishing houses e. Failure to submit the thesis by the deadline may result in graduation and granting of the degree being delayed. At most U. Once all the paperwork is in order, copies of the thesis may be made available in one or more university libraries.
Specialist abstracting services exist to publicize the content of these beyond the institutions in which they are produced. Many institutions now insist on submission of digitized as well as printed copies of theses; the digitized versions of successful theses are often made available online. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Dissertation. This is the latest accepted revisionreviewed on 11 February For other uses, see Thesis disambiguation.
For the novel, see The Dissertation. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Find sources: Relevant discussion may be found on Talk: Please help to ensure that disputed statements are reliably sourced. February Learn how and when to remove this template message. This section does not cite any sources.
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When, at ancient universities, the lector had completed his lecture, there would traditionally follow a disputation, during which students could take up certain points and argue them. The position that one took during a disputation was the thesis, while the dissertation was the line of reasoning with which one buttressed it.
Olga Weijers: The professional college admission writing recommendation letter disputatio. Hora est! On dissertationsp. Documentation— Presentation of theses and similar documentsInternational Organization for Standardization, Geneva, On dissertations. In Ross, W. The Works of Aristotle. Translated by Pickard-Cambridge, W. Clarendon Press. It explores the literary presence of the middle class managing daughter review of literature on customer satisfaction in banking sector the Victorian home.
Collectively, the novels in this study articulate social anxieties about the unclear and unstable role of daughters in the family, the physically and emotionally challenging work they, and all women, do, and the struggle for daughters to find a place in a family hierarchy, which is often structured not by effort or affection, but by proscribed traditional roles, which do not easily adapt to managing daughters, even if they are the ones holding the family together.
The managing daughter is a problem not accounted for in any conventional domestic structure or ideology so there is no role, no clear set of responsibilities and no boundaries that could, and arguably should, define her obligations, offer her opportunities for empowerment, or set necessary limits on the broad cultural mandate she has to comfort and care others. The extremes she is often pushed to reveals the stresses and hidden conflicts for authority and autonomy inherent in domestic labor without the iconic angel in the house rhetoric that so often masks the difficulties of domestic life for women.
She gains no authority or stability no matter how loving or even how necessary she is to a family because there simply is no position in the parental family structure for her. The managing daughter thus reveals a deep crack in the structure of the traditional Victorian family by showing that it often custom essay and dissertation writing service it order custom accommodate, protect, or validate a loving non-traditional family member because it values traditional hierarchies over emotion or effort.
Yet, in doing so, it also suggests that if it is position not passion that matters, then as long as a woman assumes the right position in the family then deep emotional connections to others are not necessary for her to care competently for others. Virginia B. Engholm The average birth rate per woman in was just over seven, but bythat rate had fallen to just under than three and a half.
The question that this dissertation explores is what cultural narratives about reproduction and reproductive control emerge in the wake of this demographic shift. How do women, and society, control birth? This dissertation, then, constructs a cultural narrative of the process of controlling birth.
While the chapters of this work often focus on traditional sites of birth control—contraceptives, abortion, and eugenics—they are not limited to those forms, uncovering previously hidden narratives of reproduction control. By focusing on a variety of cultural texts—advertisements, fictional novels, historical writings, medical texts, popular print, and film—this project aims to create a sense of how these cultural productions work together to construct narratives about sexuality, reproduction, and reproductive control.
Relying heavily on a historicizing of these issues, my project shows how these texts—both fictional and nonfictional—create a rich and valid site from which to explore the development of narratives of sexuality and reproductive practices, as well as how these narratives connect to larger cultural narratives of race, class, and nation.
The interdisciplinary nature of this inquiry highlights the interrelationship between the literary productions of the nineteenth and twentieth century and American cultural history. Amber M. Stamper Most recently, these Christian evangelists have gone online. As a contribution to scholarship in religious rhetoric and media studies, this dissertation offers evangelistic websites as a case study into the ways persuasion is carried out on the Internet.
Through an analysis of digital texts—including several evangelical home pages, a chat room, discussion forums, and a virtual church—I investigate how conversion is encouraged via web design and virtual community as well as how the Internet medium impacts the theology and rhetorical strategies of web evangelists.
The project begins within the historical framework of the multiple financial crises that occurred in the late eighteenth century: But how did the awareness of economic turbulence filter into the creative consciousness? Through an interdisciplinary focus online essay writing services cultural studies and behavioral economics, the dissertation posits that in spite of their conventional, status quo affirming endings opportunists are punished, lovers are marriednovels and plays written between and contemplated models of behavior that were newly opportunistic, echoing the reluctant realization that irrationality had become the norm rather than a rare aberration.
By analyzing concrete narrative strategies used by writers such as Frances Burney, Georgiana Cavendish, Hannah Cowley, and Thomas Holcroft, I demonstrate that late eighteenth-century fiction both articulates and elides the awareness of randomness and uncertainty in its depiction of plot, character, and narrative.
George Micajah Phillips Eliot, and others sought to better understand how identity was recognized, particularly visually. By exploring how painting, photography, colonial exhibitions, and cinema sought to manage visual representations of identity, these modernists found that recognition began by acknowledging the familiar but also went further to acknowledge what was strange and new as well.
Aparajita Sengupta Indian cinema is a subject about which conceptions are still muddy, even within prominent academic circles. The majority of the recent critical work on the subject endeavors to correct misconceptions, analyze cinematic norms and lay down the theoretical foundations for Indian cinema.
This dissertation conducts a study of the cinema from India with a view to examine the extent to which such cinema represents an anti-colonial vision. The political resistance of Indian films to colonial and neo-colonial norms, and their capacity to formulate a national identity is the primary focus of the current study. Kenneth Carr Hawley For Boethius, confused and conflicting views on fame, fortune, happiness, good and evil, fate, free will, necessity, foreknowledge, and providence are only capable of clarity and resolution to the degree that one attains to knowledge of the divine mind and especially to knowledge like that of the divine mind, which alone possesses a perfectly eternal perspective.
My dissertation addresses the question of how meaning is made when define abstract dissertation and images are united in multimodal arguments. Visual rhetoricians have often attempted to understand text-image arguments by privileging one medium over the other, either using text-based rhetorical principles or developing new image-based theories.
My dissertation expands the range of dissociation by applying it specifically to visual contexts and using it to critique visual arguments in a series of historical moments when political, religious, and economic factors cause one form of media to be valued over the other: In each of these periods, I argue that dissociation reveals how the define abstract dissertation medium can shape an entire multimodal argument. I conclude with a discussion of dissociative multimodal pedagogy, applying dissociation to the multimodal composition classroom.