This case demonstrates a classical presentation of cervicogenic headache which resolved quickly with a course of spinal manipulation, supportive soft-tissue therapy and postural advice. Vertebrogenic hearing deficit, the spine and spinal manipulation therapy: Chiropr J Aust ; Figure 1: Intensity of headaches as recorded on a visual analogue scale vertical axis versus time horizontal axis during the four weeks that the patient was under care. Treatment was given on days 1, custom online papers for sale, 5, 8, 10, 12, 15, 18, 22 and Headache frequency and intensity is seen to fall over time.
National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. J Can Chiropr Assoc. Brian Budgell. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Open in a separate window. Introduction Case studies are an invaluable record of the clinical practices of a profession.
Additional and useful resources for chiropractic case studies include: Waalen JK. Single subject research designs. J Can Chirop Assoc ; 35 2: Merritt L. Case reports: J Can Chiropr Assoc ; 51 2: General Instructions This set of guidelines provides both instructions and a template for the writing of case reports for publication.
Title page: The title page will contain the full title of the article. Remember that many people may find our article by searching on the internet. They may have to decide, just by looking at the title, whether or not they want to access the full article. A title which is vague or non-specific may not attract their attention. The two most common formats of titles are nominal and compound.
Other contents for the title page should be as in the general JCCA instructions to authors. Remember that for a case study, we would not expect to have more than one or two authors.
In order to be listed as an author, a person must have an intellectual stake in the writing — at the very least they must be able to explain and even defend the article. Someone who has only provided technical assistance, as valuable as that may be, may be acknowledged at the end of the article, but would not be listed as an author.
If there is more than one author, one author must be identified as the corresponding author — the person whom people should contact if they have questions or comments about the study. Key words: Provide key words under which the article will be listed. These are the words which would be used when searching for the article using a search engine such as Medline. When practical, we should choose john dewey papers words from a standard list of keywords, such as MeSH Medical subject headings.
A copy of MeSH is available in most libraries. A narrative abstract consists of a short version of the whole paper. There are no headings within the narrative abstract. The author simply tries to summarize the paper into a story which flows logically. A structured abstract uses subheadings. Structured abstracts are becoming more popular for basic scientific and clinical studies, since they standardize the abstract and ensure that certain information is included. This is very useful for readers who search for articles on the internet.
Often the abstract is displayed by a search engine, and on the basis of the abstract the reader will decide whether or not to download the full article which may require payment of a fee. With a structured abstract, the reader is more likely to be given the information which they need to decide whether to go on to the full article, and so this style is encouraged.
The JCCA recommends the use of structured abstracts for case studies. Since they are summaries, both narrative and structured abstracts are easier to write once we have finished the rest of the article. We include a template for a structured abstract and encourage authors to make use of it. Our sub-headings will be: This consists of one or two sentences to describe the context of the case and summarize the entire article. Case presentation: Several sentences describe the history and results of any examinations performed.
The working diagnosis and management of the case are described. Management and Outcome: Synthesize the foregoing subsections and explain both correlations and apparent inconsistencies. If appropriate to the case, within one or two sentences describe the lessons to be learned. At the beginning of these guidelines we suggested that we need to have a clear idea of what is particularly interesting about the case we want to describe.
The introduction is where we convey this to the reader. It is useful to begin by placing the study in a historical or social context. If similar cases have been reported previously, we describe them briefly. If there is something especially challenging about the diagnosis or management of the condition that we are describing, now is our chance to bring that out. Each time we refer to a previous study, we cite the reference usually at the end of the sentence. This is the part of the paper in which we introduce the raw help homework. First, we describe the complaint that brought the patient to us.
Next, we introduce the important information that we obtained from buy research proposals history-taking. Also, we should try to present patient information in a narrative form — full sentences which efficiently summarize the results of our questioning. We may or may not choose to include this list at the end of this section of the case presentation. The next step is to describe the results of our clinical examination.
Again, we should write in an efficient narrative style, restricting ourselves to the relevant information. It is not necessary to include every detail in our clinical notes. If we are using a named orthopedic or neurological test, it is best to both name and describe the test since some people may know the test by a different name. X-rays or other images are only helpful if they are clear enough to be easily reproduced and if they are accompanied by a legend.
Be sure that any information that might identify a patient is removed before the image is submitted. At this point, or at the beginning of the next section, we will want to present our working diagnosis or clinical impression of the patient. In this section, we should clearly describe the plan for care, as well as the care which was actually provided, and the outcome.
It is useful for the reader to know how long the patient was under care and how many times they were treated. Additionally, we should be as specific as possible in describing the treatment that we used.
If we used spinal manipulation, it is best to name the technique, if a common name exists, and also to describe the manipulation. Remember that our case study may be read by people who are not familiar with spinal manipulation, and, even within chiropractic circles, nomenclature for technique is not well standardized. However, whenever possible we should try to use a well-validated method of measuring their improvement. For case studies, it may be possible to use data from visual analogue scales VAS for pain, or a journal of medication usage.
It is useful to include in this section an indication of how and why treatment finished. Did we decide to terminate care, and if so, why? Did the patient withdraw from care or did we refer them to another practitioner? In this section we may want to identify any questions that the case raises. It is not our duty to provide a complete physiological explanation for everything that we observed. This is usually impossible. To write a case study, start with an introduction that defines key terms, outlines the problem your case study addresses, and gives necessary background information.
You can also include photos or a video if they will help your work to be more persuasive. Then, present your findings from the case study and explain your methodology, including how you used your data to come to your conclusions. In your conclusion, offer possible solutions or next steps for research, based on your results. To learn how to select participants for your case study, keep reading. This article was co-authored by our trained team of editors and researchers who validated it for accuracy and comprehensiveness.
Learn more. Learn more Method 1. Determine which case study type, design or style is most suitable to your intended audience. Corporations may choose illustrative case study method to show what has been done for a client; schools, educators and students online essay writing services select cumulative or critical case study method and legal teams may demonstrate exploratory investigative case study method as a way to provide factual evidence.
These can be written about companies, whole countries, or even individuals. Really, if you can dream it, you can write a case study about it. Determine the topic of your case study. What have you talked about in class? Have you caught yourself coming up with questions during your reading?
Look up information in books, journals, DVDs, websites, magazines, newspapers, etc. As you go through each one, take adequate notes so you can find the info later on!
Search for case studies that have been published on the same or similar subject matter. Talk to your professors, go to the library, surf the web until your bum falls asleep. When you do this, you may find there is an existing problem that needs solution, or you may find that you have to come up with an interesting idea that might or might not work in your case situation.
Review sample case studies that are similar in style and scope to get an idea of composition and format, too. Method 1 Quiz Where should you begin your case study research? Your notes on the subject. Books on your shelf. The library. A classmate or coworker. Method 2. Select participants that you will interview for inclusion in your case study. Experts in a particular field of study or customers that have implemented a tool or service that is the subject of the study will provide the best information.
Find knowledgeable people to interview. Determine whether you will interview an individual or group of individuals to serve as examples in your case study. It may be beneficial for participants to gather as a group and provide insight collectively. If the study official letter for job application on personal subject matter or medical issues, it may be better to conduct personal interviews. Gather as much information as possible about your dissertation on slum redevelopment authority to ensure that you develop interviews and activities that will result in obtaining the most advantageous information to your study.
Draft a list of interview questions and decide upon how you will conduct your study. This could be via in-person group interviews and activities, personal interviews, or phone interviews. Sometimes, email is an option. When you are interviewing people, ask them questions that will help you understand their opinions. What can you tell me about how the site or the situation developed? What do you think should be different, if anything? You also need to ask questions that will give you facts that might not be available from an article--make your work different and purposeful.
Set up interviews with subject matter experts account managers in a corporation, clients and customers using applicable tools and services, etc. They need to be fully informed and signing waivers in certain cases and your questions need to be appropriate and not controversial.
Method 2 Quiz Who should you interview for your case study? Experts in your particular field of study. Your professor or boss. Your family.
A librarian. Method 3. Conduct interviews. Ask the same or similar questions of all subjects involved to ensure that you get different perspectives on a similar subject or service. Keep your questions open-ended. Request data and materials from subjects as applicable to add credibility to your findings and future presentations of your case study. Clients can provide statistics about usage of a new tool or product and participants can provide photos and quotes that show evidence of findings that may support the case.
Collect and analyze all applicable data, including documents, archival records, observations and artifacts. Organize all of your data in the same place to ensure easy access to information and materials while writing the case study.
So, you need to think about how to sort through it, take out the excess, and arrange it so that the situation at the case site will be understandable to your readers. Before you can do this, you have to put all the information together where you can see it and analyze what is going on. Formulate the problem in one or two sentences. What patterns have your subjects brought to light? This will allow you to concentrate on what material is the most important.
Organize your material to mirror this. Method 3 Quiz What information should you request from interview participants?
Yes or no responses. Statistics relating to the use of a new phd thesis in industrial microbiology. Additional resources for your research. Company data. Method 4. Develop and write your case study using the data collected throughout the research, interviewing and analysis processes.
Include at least four sections in your case study: The introduction should very clearly set the stage. In a detective story, the crime happens right at the beginning and the detective has to put together the information to solve it for the rest of the story.
In a case, you can start by raising a question. You could quote someone you interviewed. Make sure to include background information on your study site, why your interviewees are a good sample, and what makes your problem pressing to give your audience a panoramic view of the issue. After the reader has all the knowledge needed to understand the problem, present your data. Include customer quotes and data percentages, awards and findings if possible to add a personal touch and more credibility to the case presented.
You may have to do calculations or extra research yourself to back up any claims. Let the reader leave with a full grasp of the problem, but trying to come up with their own desire to change it.
If you have written a good case, they will have enough essay admission grad school to understand the situation and have a lively class discussion. Add references and appendices if any. Just like you would in any other paper, reference your sources.
And if you have any information that relates to the study but would have interrupted the flow of the body, include it now. You may have terms that would be hard for other cultures to understand. If this is the case, include it in the appendix or in a Note for the Instructor.
Make additions and deletions. If it does so, make additions and deletions as needed. You may find that information you once thought pertinent is no longer. Or vice versa. Go over your study section by section, but also as a whole.
Edit and proofread your work. Now that your paper is formulated, look for minute revisions. As always, correct any grammar, spelling and punctuation errors, but also keep an eye out for flow and transition.
Is everything placed and worded as efficiently as possible? Have someone else proofread, too. Your mind may have become oblivious to the errors it has seen times. Another set of eyes may also notice content that has been left open-ended or is otherwise confusing. Method 4 Quiz Which of these is a section that you should you include in your case study?
Background information. Presentation of findings. All of the above.
Case studies are an invaluable record of the clinical practices of a profession. While case studies cannot provide specific guidance for the management of successive patients, they are a record of clinical interactions which help us to frame master thesis inspiration for more rigorously designed clinical studies.
Case studies also provide valuable teaching material, demonstrating both classical and unusual presentations which may confront the practitioner. Quite obviously, since the overwhelming majority of clinical interactions occur in the field, not in teaching or research facilities, it falls to custom wrtie ups on case studies field practitioner to record and pass on their experiences.
However, field practitioners generally are not well-practised in writing for publication, and so may hesitate to embark on the task of carrying a case study to publication.