Your conclusion should rephrase your thesis, summarize your main points, and leave your reader thinking about your topic, possibly in a new way. A conclusion is the last part of your paper the audience will read, so make it good!
To write a research paper, start by researching your topic at the library, online, or using an academic database. Then, come up with a sentence thesis to base your paper off of. Include the information you found through your research in your paper to back up your thesis statement.
For more help writing a research paper, like how to organize it, read the article! This article was co-authored by our trained team of editors and researchers who validated it for accuracy and comprehensiveness.
Together, they cited information from 6 references. Featured Articles Research Papers. Learn more. Learn more Ask yourself important questions. Although you may be limited by specific classroom or work related guidelines, choosing your topic is the first and most important step in your research paper project.
Regardless of whether your topic can be anything you want or has rigid requirements, it is important to keep a few questions in mind: Is there enough research available on this topic? Is the topic new and unique enough that I can offer fresh opinions? Pick something you love.
Whenever possible, choose a topic that you feel passionate about. Writing about something you enjoy certainly shows in the final product, making it more likely that you will be successful writing a paper about something you enjoy. Stay original. If you are writing a research paper for a class, consider the other students. Is it likely that they will also be writing about your topic? How can you keep your paper unique and interesting if everyone is writing about the same thing?
Get advice. Asking a professor for help may seem frightening, but if they are worth anything as a professor, they want you to be successful with your work, and will do what they can to make that happen.
Although it requires a bit more time, you have the ability to change your topic even after you begin researching others.
Part 1 Quiz What is the most important element to consider when choosing a research topic? If you are passionate about the subject. If there is enough information about the topic. If the topic has never been written about before. If the topic is persuasive.
Begin your research. With a topic selected, the next step is to begin research. Research comes in numerous forms including web pages, journal articles, books, encyclopedias, interviews, and blog posts, among others. Take time to look for professional resources who offer valid research and insight into your topic. Try to use a minimum of five sources to vary your information; never rely on only sources. Look for empirical research.
Whenever possible, look for peer-reviewed empirical research. These are articles or books written by experts in your field of interest, whose work has been read and vouched for by other experts in the same field. These can be found in scientific journals or via an online search. Visit the library. Take a trip to your local library or university library. Although it may seem old fashioned, libraries are chock full of helpful research materials from books to newspapers and magazines to journals.
Look online. Typically, websites that end with. That is because these websites belong to schools, the government, or organizations dealing with your topic. Try adding site: You can also add PDF alongside that format. Try changing your search query often to find different search results for your topic. Use academic databases. There are special search engines and academic databases available that search through thousands of peer-reviewed or scientifically published journals, writing services in canada, and books.
Look for databases that cover your subject only. For example, PsycINFO is an academic database that holds nothing but works done by authors in the field of psychology and sociology. This will help you to get more tailored results than a very general search would. Take advantage of this ability to ask for specific information by using as many of the query boxes as you can.
Visit your school library and ask the librarian for a full list of the academic databases they subscribe to, as well as the passwords for each. Get creative with your research. This should contain many more books and journals that are about your topic as well. Part 2 Quiz What would be the best resource to use for a paper on tetanus? A peer-reviewed article by a doctor.
A video of what tetanus looks like. A blog written by a tetanus survivor. A dictionary definition of tetanus. Annotate your research. This step is very important: Make marks on anything that you think might be remotely important or that could be put to use in your paper. As you mark off important pieces in the research, add your own commentary and notes explaining to yourself where you might use it in your paper. Writing down your ideas as you have them will make writing your paper much easier and give you something to refer back to.
Organize your notes. Annotating your research can take quite a bit of time, but needs to be taken one step further in order to resume writing for high school student volunteer a critical summary sample more clarity for the outlining process.
Organize your notes by collecting all of your highlighted phrases and ideas into categories based custom essay writers really cheap topic. For example, if you are writing a paper analyzing a famous work of literature, you could organize your research into a list of notes on the characters, a list of references to certain points in the plot, a list of symbols the author presents, et cetera.
Try writing each quote or item that you marked onto an individual note card. That way, you can rearrange and lay out your cards however you would like. Color code your notes to make it easier. Write down a list of all the notes you are using from each individual resource, and then highlight each category of information in a different color. For example, write everything from a particular book or journal on a single sheet of paper in order to consolidate nursing program admission essay notes, and then everything that is related to characters highlight in green, everything related to the plot mark in orange, et cetera.
As you go through your notes, mark down the author, page number, title, and publishing information for each resource. This will come in handy when you craft your bibliography or works cited page later in the game. Identify the goal of the paper. Generally, speaking, there are two types of research paper: Each requires a slightly different focus and writing style which should be identified prior to starting a rough draft. An argumentative research paper takes a position on a contentious issue and argues for one point of view.
The issue should be debatable with a logical counter argument. An analytic research paper offers a fresh look at an important issue. The subject may not be controversial, but you must attempt to persuade your audience that your ideas have merit. This is not simply a regurgitation of ideas from your research, but an offering of your own unique ideas based on what you have learned through research. Determine your audience. Who would be reading this paper, should it be published?
Although you want to write for your professor or other superior, it is important that the tone and focus of your paper reflect the audience who will be reading it. Develop your thesis. The thesis statement is a sentence statement at the beginning of your paper that states the main goal or argument of your paper.
Although you can alter the wording of your thesis statement for the final draft later, coming up with the main goal of your essay must be done in the beginning. All of your body paragraphs and information will revolve around your thesis, so make sure that you are clear on what your thesis is.
What is the primary question or hypothesis that you are going to go about proving in your paper? Your thesis should express the main idea of your paper without listing all of your reasons or outline your entire paper. Determine your main points. The body of your essay will revolve around the ideas that you judge to be most important. Go through your research and annotations to determine what points are the most pivotal in your argument or presentation of information.
What ideas can you write whole paragraphs about? Which ideas to you have plenty of firm facts and research to back with evidence? Write your main points down on paper, and then organize the related research under each. When you outline your main ideas, putting them in a specific order dissertation uofc important.
Place your strongest points at the beginning and end of your essay, with more mediocre points placed in the middle or near the end of your essay. Main ideas can be spread out over as many paragraphs as you deem necessary. Consider formatting guidelines. Depending on your paper rubric, class guidelines, or formatting guidelines, you may have to organize your paper in a specific way.
For example, when writing in APA format you must organize your paper by headings including the introduction, methods, results, and discussion. These guidelines will alter the way you craft your outline and final paper. Finalize your outline. With the aforementioned tips taken into consideration, organize your entire outline.
Justify main points to the left, and indent subsections and notes from your research below each. The outline should be an overview of your entire paper in bullet points. Part 3 Quiz What is the most important reason to come up with a thesis statement early in your writing process? So you can organize your essay to prove your point. The thesis statement comes first in your essay. You might have to submit your thesis statement to your professor before the entire essay. The thesis statement is the most difficult part of the essay.
Write your body paragraphs. Although it may seem counter-intuitive, writing your introduction first may be more difficult to accomplish than starting with the meat of your paper.
Starting by writing the main points focusing on supporting your thesis allows you to slightly change and manipulate your ideas and commentary. Support every statement you make with evidence. Supply ample explanations for your research. The opposite of stating opinions without facts is stating facts with no commentary.
Although you certainly want to present plenty of evidence, make sure that your paper is uniquely your own by adding commentary in whenever possible. Avoid using many long, direct quotes. Although your paper is based on research, the point is for you to present your own ideas. Unless the quote you intend on using is absolutely necessary, try paraphrasing and analyzing it in your own words instead.
Use clear segues into adjacent points in your paper. Your essay should flow well, rather than stopping and starting in a blunt fashion. Make sure that each of your body paragraphs flows nicely into the one after it. Write the conclusion. Can people be ordered to act against their moral convictions? Business plan for buy to let experiment will test whether a person can keep administering painful electric shocks to another person just because they are ordered to do so.
The expectation is that very few will keep giving shocks, and that most participants will disobey the order.
Participants There were 30 male participants. Instruments A "shock generator" was used to trick the participants into thinking that they were giving an electric shock to another person in another room. The shock generator had switches labeled with different voltages, starting at 30 volts and increasing in volt increments all the way up to volts.
The switches were also labeled with terms which reminded the participant of how dangerous the shocks were. Procedures The participant met another "participant" in the waiting room before the experiment. The other "participant" was an actor. Each participant got the role as a "teacher" who would then deliver a shock to the actor "learner" every time an incorrect answer to a question was produced. The participant believed that he was delivering real shocks to the learner. The learner would pretend to be shocked.
As the experiment progressed, the teacher would hear the learner plead to be released and complain about a heart condition. Once the volt level had been reached, the learner banged on the wall and demanded to be released. Beyond this point, the learner became completely silent and dissertation thesis zno to answer any more questions. The experimenter then instructed the participant to treat this silence as an incorrect response and deliver a further shock.
When asking the experimenter if they should stop, they were instructed to continue. Of the 40 participants in define personal essay study, 26 delivered the maximum shocks.
All 40 participants continued to give shocks up to volts. Most of the participants became very agitated, stressed and angry at the experimenter. Many continued to follow orders throughout even though they were clearly uncomfortable.
The study shows that people are able to harm others intentionally if ordered to do so. It provides evidence that this dynamic is far more important than previously believed, and that personal ethics are less predictive of such behavior.
Page A short summary of the article. Current theories about the topic. What method used. What were the results obtained? Discussion and Conclusion.
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