Appendices, should be designated by capital letters, e. Use numbers or letters for other items only when necessary. Use 1 in the text and 1. If items in a numbered list run onto two or more lines, you may let the additional lines begin at the margin or indent the entire paragraph to the right of the numbers.
Numbers beginning a sentence, as well as numbers below 10 or, if you prefer, 12 should be spelled out when they appear within the text. If a table, appendix, illustration, or graph is too wide or long, or both, to fit within the specified margins, have it reduced, or if textual material, type it using a smaller font.
Whenever possible, avoid inserting tables which must be read by turning the book sideways. If such a table is necessary, be sure to insert it with the heading to the spine or binding. You may also use a condensed typeface.
For style guides other than APA, if you have more than one work by the same author, do not repeat his or her name over and over. Use ten underscore characters, ending with a period if the author is exactly the same as the previous one, or with a comma if the author is the first of a series of new authors, as shown below. Single space the entry; double space between entries.
Indent the second and subsequent lines one-half inch. Note that authors with two initials have a space after the period between each initial, e. Do not allow initials to break between lines; keep them together on one line or the other. Regardless of the style guide you use, avoid having one or two lines of an entry on one page and the rest of the citation on the next page.
The entry should be cited in its entirety on one page or the other. The way you cite an author in your manuscript is based on the context. If you are attributing an idea that you paraphrased to someone, use the name and date according to APA style such as Jones,or as shown in the first sentence below. If you are. Also, specific information or ideas need a page number even if paraphrased.
For example, the following brief passage refers to the same publication by a hypothetical author:. Review the whole manuscript to be sure that every work referred to in the manuscript is cited in the text or footnotes and included in the bibliography.
Four or more lines of a quotation should be set off from the main good site buy essay with a double space, typed single spaced with no quotation marks, and the entire block indented one-half inch. Quotations within these block or indented quotations may use double quotations. The first line of the quotation is not indented; however, the first lines of new paragraphs within the quotation should begin with an additional indent of one-half inch.
Each appendix should have the proper designation at the top of the first page. A title page does not need to be inserted before each one.
Use the following format, centered between the left and right margins, beginning two inches from the top of the page:. Avoid it if you can. Again, all material in an appendix must fit within the overall page margins. It is writing critical essays to obtain letters of permission for the reproduction of any copyrighted material which exceeds the Federal law pertaining to "Fair Use. Copies of the letters do not need to be included in the dissertation.
The abstract is a brief summary of the contents of the dissertation. Begin typing the abstract two inches from the top of a blank page with no heading. The abstract should be typed double-spaced with the same typeface and margins as the dissertation.
The length of the abstract should be limited to words. The abstract title page is identical to the dissertation title page with one exception: Each abstract is stapled in the upper left corner and kept separate from the dissertation. The chairperson of the dissertation committee should sign one copy of the abstract title page. The following section includes sample dissertation pages which should be followed carefully. Refer to narrative essay about helping others preceding section for more detailed information on format requirements.
Students should follow the instructions on these sample pages rather than using a dissertation from the library or elsewhere as a guide. Format requirements differ from year to year and from school to school. Dissertation Formatting Guidelines This section describes the dissertation format that all NYUSteinhardt doctoral candidates are required to follow.
Choice of Style Manual Faculty policy leaves the choice of a style manual to the doctoral candidate with the advice and consent of his or her committee. Typically, the following style manuals are used by NYUSteinhardt students: Print and Copy Quality Your printer must produce consistently black letters and consistent margins.
Typefaces The School and ProQuest UMI allow students to use typefaces that are between 10 and 12 points; however, because 10 point can appear too small in most typefaces, 12 point is generally preferred. Do not justify the right margin of your text; keep it left aligned like the text shown here. Margins To assure proper binding and for ease of reading, the following margins are required: Left margin: Right margin: Top margin: Bottom margin: Page numbers for all pages preceding page 1 of Chapter I lower case roman numerals for Acknowledgments, Table of Contents, etc.
Page numbers from page 1 of Chapter I through the last page of the last appendix should be placed three-quarters of an inch from the top or bottom, centered between the left and right margins. See the next section for sample dissertation pages.
White Space Avoid leaving more than two inches of white space without type. Line Spacing Double space the entire manuscript with these exceptions which should be single-spaced: Pagination The title page is counted as page one and the copyright page as page two, but numbers do not appear on them. Order of Sections The material of your manuscript should be ordered as follows: Follow this format: Table of Contents and Lists of Tables and Figures Because a dissertation does not have an index, your Table of Contents should be as comprehensive as possible.
In these chapters a straightforward description is required of how you conducted the research. If you used particular equipment, processes, or materials, you will need to be clear and precise in how you describe them. You must give enough detail for another researcher to replicate your study.
You will need to check which style of reporting is preferred in your field. For example a scientific dissertation would probably have very clear separation between the results and the discussion of those results; whereas a social science dissertation might have an overall chapter called Findings, bringing the results and their discussion together.
This is where you review your own research in relation to the wider context in which it is located. You can refer back to the rationale that you gave for your research in the literature review, and discuss what your own research has added in this context. It is important to show that you appreciate the limitations of your research, and how these may affect the validity or usefulness of your findings. Given the acknowledged limitations, you can report on the implications of your findings for theory, research, and practice.
This chapter tends to be much shorter than the Discussion. This section needs to be highly structured, and needs to include all of your references in the required referencing style. As you edit and rewrite your dissertation you will probably gain and lose references that you had in earlier versions. It is important therefore to check that all the references in your reference list are actually referenced within the text; and that all the references that appear in the text appear also in the reference list.
You need to check whether or not the appendices count within the word limit for your dissertation. Items that can usefully go in the appendices are those that a reader would want to see, but which would take up too much space and disrupt the flow if placed within the main text. Again, make sure you reference the Appendices within the main text where necessary.
If your dissertation is well-structured, easy to follow, logical, and coherent, your examiners will probably enjoy reading it, and will be able essays for sale on legalizing marijuana listen to your argument without the distraction of trying to make all the links themselves. The only way to achieve a consistent argument throughout a piece of writing is by creating some kind of plan essay about loneliness map of what you want to say.
It can be useful to think of the research question or topic going like a strong thread throughout the dissertation: Moving from doing the research to writing a comprehensive account of doctoral dissertation debunk aspergers is not necessarily easy. It can be helpful to break the task down into smaller, more easily accomplished elements. The process of producing your writing plan could go as follows. It can be a good idea to put the word limit to the back of your mind at this point, and concentrate on getting everything recorded in a document.
You can always edit upwards or downwards later as necessary. It is likely, and advisable, that you will not wait until the end of your research before starting to write it up. You may be required to produce one or more chapters for assessment part way through your research.
The process described above can be used for any individual chapter you are working on. It is important to be prepared to critique and revise your own work several times. Even the early chapters submitted for assessment, and passing that assessment, may need to be revised later on. This is not a failure, but a positive sign of increased experience and skill. You will refer to the work of others as you make your argument.
This may involve critiquing the work of established leaders in the field. It is important that you are assertive about what you are arguing, but it is unlikely that, in a dissertation project, you will be able to be definitive in closing an established academic debate. You should be open about where the gaps are in your research, and cautious about over-stating what you have found.
Aim to be modest but realistic in relating your own research to the broader context. Once you have the dissertation in draft form it becomes easier to see where you can improve it. To make it easier to read you can use clear signposting at the beginning of essay writing service 12 hours, and write links between sections to show how they relate to each other.
Another technique to improve academic writing style is to ensure that each individual paragraph justifies its inclusion. More ideas will be presented in the Study Guide The art of editing.
You may choose to review your draft from the standpoint of a dissertation examiner, which might involve preparing a list of questions that you want to see answered, then reading through your dissertation scribbling comments, suggestions, criticisms, and ideas in the margin. If you have a marking guide then apply it to your dissertation and see if there are aspects that you can improve.
While you do this, be aware of whether you need to increase the number of words, or decrease it to reach your target.
As you read you can then cross through material that appears unnecessary, and mark points that could be expanded. This will then form the basis for your next, improved, draft. Just as it can be difficult to begin writing, it can also be difficult to know when to stop. You may begin to feel that your dissertation will never be good enough, and that you need to revise it again and again. It may be helpful to divert your attention for a while to the finishing off activities you need to attend to:.
Coming back afresh to look critically at the main text may then enable you to complete it to your satisfaction. Remember the dissertation needs to demonstrate your ability to undertake and report research rather than to answer every question on a topic.
It is important to allow yourself enough time for the final checking and proof reading of the finished document. Barrass R. A guide to better writing for scientists, engineers and students. Chapman and Hall. Taylor G. Cambridge University Press. Personal tools Web Editor Log in.
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