A Signature series is the range of sequential letters, numbers, or symbols that were used as signatures in the book. Both a-z and A-Z indicate that the book has 23 signed gatherings. Multiple signatures, such as doubled signature or in the previous example, commonly follow a first alphabetic series in the same upper-case or lower case signing system. Multiple signature systems are present in books where gatherings are signed with different alphabetic, numeric, or symbolic systems. Sometimes individual leaves are unsigned or signed using a capital letter where a lower case letter should have been used.
These are printing errors and do not constitute the beginning of a new signing system. Errors within signature systems are not discussed in the collation formula, but are treated in the signing statement. Signatures as reference systems. Leaves are referred to by their place within the gathering, whether or not that particular leaf bears a signature. Format and the Format Worksheet 1. The Format Worksheet supports the elements: Enter the ObjectID on the worksheet.
To determine the format, determine the number of leaves in an average gathering; check that the number of leaves is generally consistent with the measurements and direction of chain lines in the paper, if these are present. Highlight the appropriate row. Provide the measurements in the dimension field. Format indicates the number of times a sheet was folded to make a gathering, not online essay helpers dimension of the leaf or size of the book.
More generally, in assessing format, note the following: The number of leaves in each gathering. The direction of chain-lines on laid paper 3. Dimensions of the uncut leaf. If the leaf is cut, allow cm for large books and. The position of the watermark, if there is one. Signature Collation and the Collation Statement Worksheet 1. Collation Formula Worksheet supports the elements: Enter the ObjectID on the worksheet b.
Locate the first signed gathering of the book. Signature Collation for details about signatures, gatherings, and leaves. Locate the row on the worksheet that matches this signature. If the book is completely unsigned, then move on to the Pagination and Contents Worksheet, using this to identify the number of leaves in the book. Beginning with the row coordinating with your first signed gathering, row fill in the appropriate information into cells i. Put a check or other consistent mark into cell 1 if this signature is present on the gathering.
If the very first gathering s of a book is are unsigned, and the first signed gathering is consistent with the presence of the unsigned gatherings, then these gatherings can be inferred from the sequence of the signed gatherings. Count the number of leaves in the gathering. The number should be even. Enter the number of leaves into cell 2 3. The number of leaves in a gathering may vary between gatherings; enter the exact number of leaves in the examined gathering.
Examine the signatures on the leaves in the gathering. Enter the number of signed leaves into cell 3. For example: If only A1 is signed, enter 1 b. If A1 and A2 are signed, enter 2 c. If A1, A2, and A3 are signed, enter 3. And so on. The number of signed leaves may vary between gatherings; enter the number of signed leaves in the examined gatherings. Locate the signature on the next gathering. If the signatures are sequential, place a college essay question or other consistent mark in cell 4 use the same consistent mark from cell 2.
If the signature is not sequential, meaning that it skips to another signature in the series or to an entirely different signature sequence, enter that signature into cell 4. If the first leaf of the next gathering is unsigned or mis-signed, top rated research paper writing services the remaining leaves are sequential and correct, treat the entry as sequential and correct, and enter the next sequential and correct signature into cell 4.
Locate the row that corresponds with the signature entered in cell four, and complete cells Repeat this process, accounting for all of the gatherings in the book. Multiple signature series sequences within one book. If the next gathering introduces a signature series that duplicates an existing signature series, indicate this by entering the number of this series repetition as a superscript, followed by the first signature of that series.
Begin a new worksheet for this signature series, indicating it clearly in the notes section. For example, a book with two series sequences: A-2Z and then a second signature series beginning with A. For example, A-C8 E-M8. Or A-C8 a8 E-M8 3. For example, A4 B-M8.
About Signature Collation 1. General comments on the collation formula. The collation formula serves two purposes: In principle, well-formed books are consistent in their gatherings, signatures, foliation and pagination.
Of course, in practice, individual books are frequently inconsistent, and suffer from either too much or to little in the way of gatherings, signatures, foliation, and pagination.
Gatherings are the folded printed sheet of leaves in a book. Signatures are the letters or numbers printed on the first leaf or more of each gathering. They were intended to guide the binder in assembling the volume.
A signed gathering is shown as signatureleaves. For example A8 is the gathering signed A, which has 8 leaves.
A sequence of regularly signed gatherings is shown first signature — last signatureleaves. For example A-M8 iii. Leaves are the smallest unit of the physical book. For example, A4 denotes the 4th leaf in the gathering signed A. A4 denotes that gathering A is made up of four leaves.
Recto front and verso back. Obviously, where there is a recto there is also a verso. These are indicated by a recto or b versobut by convention, the a recto is implied but the b verso is explicitly stated. For example, A4 indicates A4a, but the verso of this leaf must be referred to A4b. Broadsides are single, unfolded printed leaves. They are usually printed only on one side, broadsheets are indicated: Conjugate leaves are physically attached and part of the same sheet and connect through the gutter.
For example, in a quarto the conjugate pairs in a quarto signed A are A1. Cancels are leaves that were intentionally removed by the printer.
Often, but not always, a new leaf takes its place by gluing a replacement leaf onto the narrow stub left by the excised leaf. It is necessary to note both removed and replaced leaves. The basic rules of signature collation a. Lower case signature series are distinguished from capitals, but capitals are not distinguished from small capitals, and the difference between gothic, italic, and roman fonts are ignored.
Arbitrary symbols used as signatures are reproduced. Duplicated signatures, Aa-Zz are written 2A-2Z. Superscript figures are added to signature notations to show how the sheet was folded and how many leaves are in a gathering. A folio of two leaves is A2, a quarto of four leaves is A4, an octavo of eight leaves is A8.
The superscript figure means that normal folding for the format was used, that the pairs of leaves are conjugate. The superscript figure must always be even. Plates and other material that were not part of the printing process, that is, they are added into the book, are not part of the collation formula and are discussed in the technical note. The format statement is separated from the collation statement by a colon and a simple formula is unpunctuated.
A-M8 3. Each gathering has the same number of leaves. The basic formula is first signature-last signatureleaves.
For example, A-M8 indicates twelve sequentially signed gatherings, each consisting of eight leaves. A signature collation statement accounts for all of the signed and unsigned gatherings in a volume, but excludes all inserted materials that do not impact the collation. Find the first signed leaf.
Ideally, the first leaf of the volume will be signed A and the subsequent gatherings will be consistently signed. Examine the book quickly, looking at the first few gatherings, a middle few gatherings, and the last few gatherings, and compare the signature systems used.
If they do not appear consistent across the gatherings, then it is often useful to work through the collation statement, foliation and pagination statement, and content note at the same time. Collation in Practice a. Too many signatures i. ALWAYS confirm that these signature letters are absent, and if they are present, then make a note of it. These are more common in early hand-press work, but also occur in 19th century books.
More than one signing system. Books sometimes switch signing systems entirely, which is indicated, for example: Mis-printings and mis-signings. Sometimes a book will switch the case research papers on osteoporosis the signature, for example: If the signatures series is otherwise consistent, then it is ignored in the collation statement and explained in the note.
In many cases, a signature series is interrupted by another system of signing, which is called interpolation. This often happens at the beginning of books, but it can happen anywhere.
Sometimes the first signed gathering will be a, but a subsequent gathering is signed C. This indicates that the unsigned leaves preceding a may be an implied gathering A. How are the illustrations incorporated into the book? How is it bound? Descriptive bibliographies are books that give full physical us based essay writing company of the books they list, enabling us to tell one edition from another and to identify significant variations within a single edition.
Good descriptive bibliographies are therefore indispensable to book collectors, whatever their fields of interest and whatever the time period their collections cover.
Unfortunately, good descriptive bibliographies do not exist for all fields and for all periods, and, as a result, collectors must frequently do their own spade work, learning enough about the techniques of descriptive bibliography to distinguish among editions, issues, and impressions without outside help.
The bulk of this chapter therefore concerns itself with the vocabulary of descriptive bibliography, concentrating on the earlier periods of bookmaking because a chronological understanding of the structure of books is essentialbut also sketching in the relationship between the handmade and the machine-produced book.
Analytical bibliography is concerned with the whole study of the physical book: The three types of analytical bibliography—historical, descriptive, and textual—are all closely interrelated. It is lunatic to attempt to draw overly precise distinctions among them. They dissertation and theses proquest equally important as aids to our understanding of books.
Andre Deutsch, In the creation and dissemination of a printed book, many persons take part: Each of these individuals can affect the physical book as it comes to us—some more than others, to be sure. But all need to be accounted for if the complete history of a book is to be known and described.
Fellowships William L. Mitchell Prize Justin G. Schiller Prize St. Bibliography Defined The following is excerpted with permission of the author from Jean Peters, ed. The two main sorts of bibliography are: Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use. Below you will find sample annotations from annotated bibliographies, each with a different research project.
Some annotations may address all three of these steps. Lamott, Anne. Bird by Bird: Some Instructions on Writing and Life. Anchor Books, In the sample annotation above, the writer includes three paragraphs: Ehrenreich, B. Nickel and dimed: On not getting by in America. New York, NY: Henry Holt and Company.
The annotation above both summarizes and assesses the book in the citation. Davidson, Hilda Ellis. Roles of the Northern Goddess. Routledge, This annotation includes only one paragraph, a summary of the book. MLA Guide. APA Guide.
Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. An Introduction to Descriptive Bibliography, for Beginners.
With Worksheets. Kimberly Garmoe.